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Table 4 Odds Ratio from multilevel generalized linear regression to stunting status of children in Bangladesh, BDHS-2014

From: Correlates of stunting among under-five children in Bangladesh: a multilevel approach

Variable Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval)
Model 1a Model 2b Model 3 c
Age in months
  < 6 (RC) 1.00 1.00 1.00
 6–11 1.94 (1.27–2.97) 1.89 (1.52–2.35) 1.94 (1.27–2.96)
 12–23 5.08 (3.75–6.90) 4.91 (3.82–6.32) 5.09 (3.76–6.88)
 24–35 5.87 (4.15–8.28) 5.72 (5.44–6.02) 5.88 (4.16–8.31)
 36–47 6.71 (4.47–10.07) 6.55 (5.96–7.20) 6.71 (4.46–10.10)
 48–59 4.47 (3.07–6.51) 4.40 (4.33–4.47) 4.48 (3.08–6.53)
Sex of child
 Male (RC) 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Female 0.89 (0.78–1.02) 0.89 (0.85–0.93) 0.89 (0.78–1.02)
Preceding birth interval (months)
 First birth (RC) 1.00 1.00 1.00
  < 24 1.36 (1.11–1.67) 1.47 (1.22–1.77) 1.36 (1.11–1.67)
 24–47 1.15 (0.96–1.39) 1.25 (1.14–1.38) 1.16 (0.96–1.40)
 48+ 0.88 (0.77–1.02) 0.88 (0.83–0.93) 0.89 (0.77–1.02)
Age of mothers at 1st birth (years)
  < 20 (RC) 1.00 1.00 1.00
 20–30 0.87 (0.77–0.98) 0.90 (0.77–1.06) 0.87 (0.76–0.98)
 31 + 0.88 (0.48–1.59) 0.90 (0.53–1.53) 0.87 (0.49–1.56)
Mother’s BMI
 Underweight (RC) 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Normal 0.84 (0.77–0.93) 0.83 (0.78–0.89) 0.84 (0.76–0.93)
 Overweight 0.62 (0.51–0.76) 0.60 (0.54–0.67) 0.62 (0.51–0.76)
 Obese 0.65 (0.46–0.93) 0.60 (0.49–0.73) 0.65 (0.46–0.92)
Mother’s educational level
 No education (RC) 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Primary 0.96 (0.73–1.26) 0.93 (0.90–0.97) 0.96 (0.73–1.26)
 Secondary 0.76 (0.60–0.96) 0.71 (0.61–0.83) 0.76 (0.61–0.96)
 Higher 0.71 (0.52–0.97) 0.64 (0.39–1.03) 0.71 (0.53–0.97)
Mother’s employment status
 No (RC) 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Yes 1.1 (0.99–1.24) 1.03 (0.89–1.18) 1.10 (0.98–1.23)
Father’s education level
 No education (RC) 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Primary 0.85 (0.74–0.97) 0.85 (0.85–0.85) 0.85 (0.75–0.97)
 Secondary 0.69 (0.58–0.82) 0.68 (0.57–0.79) 0.70 (0.59–0.82)
 Higher 0.61 (0.52–0.70) 0.59 (0.51–0.68) 0.61 (0.53–0.70)
Father’s occupation
 Professional (RC) 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Sales 1.04 (0.86–1.25) 1.02 (0.86–1.22) 1.03 (0.86–1.24)
 Agricultural – self employ 1.06 (0.79–1.43) 1.03 (0.99–1.07) 1.06 (0.79–1.42)
 Agricultural - employ 1.04 (0.79–1.37) 1.02 (0.94–1.11) 1.04 (0.79–1.36)
 Services 1.22 (0.98–1.53) 1.24 (0.93–1.66) 1.22 (0.97–1.52)
 Skilled manual 1.1 (0.82–1.46) 1.08 (0.84–1.39) 1.09 (0.82–1.45)
 Household and domestic 0.72 (0.51–1.02) 0.81 (0.74–0.89) 0.72 (0.50–1.03)
 Don’t work 1.16 (0.55–2.43) 1.23 (1.09–1.38) 1.16 (0.55–2.43)
Wealth index
 Poorest (RC) 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Poorer 0.79 (0.63–0.99) 0.80 (0.78–0.82) 0.79 (0.63–0.99)
 Middle 0.77 (0.70–0.84) 0.78 (0.74–0.82) 0.77 (0.69–0.85)
 Richer 0.63 (0.49–0.82) 0.64 (0.41–1.00) 0.62 (0.47–0.82)
 Richest 0.43 (0.32–0.57) 0.45 (0.31–0.65) 0.42 (0.31–0.57)
 No. of observation 6900 6900 6900
 AIC 8191.249 8243.575 8190.982
 BIC 8464.82 8517.146 8471.393
Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC)
 Division 0.0166945   0.0146549
 Residence   0.0004238 0.0187098
Median Odds Ratio (MOR)
 Division 1.252   1.234
 Residence   1.036 1.117
Random-effects Parameters Estimate (95% CI)
 Residence   0.04 (0.00–0.57) 0.12 (0.04–0.33)
 Division 0.24 (0.13–0.42)   0.22 (0.11–0.44)
P-value < 0.001 1.00 < 0.001
  1. RC stands for ‘reference category’
  2. aModel 1: two level generalized linear regression considering division as second level hierarchical factor
  3. bModel 2: two level generalized linear regression considering residential status as second level hierarchical factor
  4. cModel 3: three level generalized linear regression considering residential status as third level and division as second level hierarchical factors