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Table 2 Baseline values and mean changes for primary and secondary characteristics following 6-month vitamin D intervention

From: The effect of vitamin D supplementation on the glycemic control of pre-diabetic Qatari patients in a randomized control trial

  Placebo (n = 75a) Vitamin D (n = 57a) P-value between groups Adjusted P-value between groups#
Baselineb Changed p-value within group Baselineb Changed P-value within group
Weight (kg) 91.3 ± 18.9 − 0.57 (− 1.53, 0.39) 0.24 86.3 ± 19.6 0.16 (− 0.73, 1.06) 0.71 0.28
BMI (kg/m2) 32.0 ± 5.9 − 0.19 (− 0.51, 0.13) 0.24 30.0 ± 6.2 0.05 (− 0.25, 0.35) 0.75 0.30
Waist Circumference (cm) 103.8 ± 12.6 − 0.16 (− 1.08, 0.76) 0.73 101.5 ± 11.0 − 0.39 (− 1.25, 0.47) 0.37 0.73
HbA1c (%) 5.9 ± 0.22 0.007 (− 0.10, 0.11) 0.90 5.9 ± 0.19 − 0.04 (− 0.12, 0.05) 0.37 0.54
HbA1c (mmol/mol) 41.3 ± 2.37 0.075 (− 1.07,1.22) 0.90 40.9 ± 2.02 − 0.40 (− 1.31,0.50) 0.37 0.54
SBP (mmHg) 129.3 ± 15.5 − 5.04 (− 8.27, − 1.81) 0.003 127.4 ± 12.8 −6.59 (− 10.44, − 2.74) 0.001 0.54
DBP (mmHg) 76.6 ± 12.0 − 0.84 (− 3.08, 1.40) 0.46 75.9 ± 9.9 − 4.87 (− 8.10, − 1.64) 0.004 0.036
RBC (× 106 uL) 5.2 ± 0.51 − 0.08 (− 0.15, − 0.007) 0.03 5.2 ± 0.58 − 0.09 (− 0.19, 0.008) 0.07 0.84
Hemoglobin (g/dL) 14.5 ± 1.4 − 0.17 (− 0.34, − 0.004) 0.045 14.4 ± 1.4 0.16 (− 0.89, 1.22) 0.76 0.49
Hematocrit (%) 44.0 (42.0, 45.7)c 0.0 (− 1.4, 1.6) 0.46 43.2 (41.4, 45.8) −1.0 (− 2.4, 1.4) 0.15 0.07
Total Cholesterol (mmol/L) 5.1 ± 0.95 − 0.08 (− 0.25, 0.09) 0.37 5.3 ± 0.86 − 0.32 (− 0.58, − 0.06) 0.02 0.11
HDL (mmol/L) 1.1 ± 0.23 − 0.04 (− 0.07, − 0.01) 0.005 1.1 ± 0.26 0.03 (− 0.08, 0.14) 0.58 0.15
LDL (mmol/L) 3.4 ± 0.86 − 0.08 (− 0.29, 0.12) 0.42 3.4 ± 0.80 − 0.15 (− 0.37, 0.06) 0.16 0.65
Triglyceride (mmol/L) 1.5 ± 0.74 0.16 (− 0.10, 0.43) 0.23 1.6 ± 0.84 0.16 (− 0.31, 0.63) 0.49 0.99
25 (OH) D (ng/ml) 17.0 ± 4.6 − 0.88 (− 2.20, 0.44) 0.19 14.9 ± 4.3 19.4 (16.4, 22.5) < 0.001 < 0.001
PTH (pg/ml) 57.4 ± 28.3 7.7 (− 0.56, 15.9) 0.07 58.2 ± 19.4 − 3.1 (− 9.4, 3.1) 0.32 0.045
Serum Calcium (mmol/L) 2.25 ± 1.1 0.51 (− 0.16, 1.2) 0.13 1.99 ± 1.3 0.70 (0.06, 1.3) 0.03 0.67
Creatinine (Umol/L) 74.2 ± 11.3 − 4.1 (− 7.1, − 1.1) 0.008 73.0 ± 17.1 0.53 (− 4.6, 5.7) 0.84 0.11
CPK (U/L) 118.5 (83.5, 201.0)c − 4.5 (− 32.8, 14.2) 0.36 124.5 (83.7, 185.7) −2.0 (− 18.0, 15.0) 0.55 0.79
C-peptide (U/L) 2.1 (1.7, 3.1)c 0.18 (− 0.13, 0.59) 0.007 2.4 (1.9, 3.1) 0.15 (−0.29, 0.71) 0.12 0.84
SGOT (U/L) 21.0 (18.3, 26.8)c −2.0 (− 7.0, 1.0) 0.011 22.0 (17.8, 27.3) −3.0 (− 5.0, 2.0) 0.062 0.88
SGPT (U/L) 26.0 (19.0, 36.8)c −3.0 (−9.0, 1.0) < 0.001 29.0 (19.0, 42.0) −3.0 (− 12.0, 3.0) 0.018 0.88
ALP (U/L) 73.7 ± 19.6 3.4 (−0.24, 7.0) 0.07 73.8 ± 17.7 −6.1 (− 10.1, −2.0) 0.004 0.001
Bilirubin (umol/L) 9.05 (7.2, 14.0)c −0.75 (−2.4, 2.0) 0.699 11.3 (9.7, 15.0) −1.85 (−5.2, 1.2) 0.006 0.039
Mean FPG (mmol/L) 6.3 ± 0.73 0.13 (−0.08, 0.35) 0.22 6.1 ± 0.63 0.30 (−0.09, 0.68) 0.13 0.41 0.434
2 h PCG (mmol/L) 9.3 ± 2.9 1.09 (0.44, 1.7) 0.001 9.2 ± 2.4 1.15 (0.44, 1.9) 0.002 0.90 0.768
Mean FPI (μU/ml) 9.8 ± 6.1 0.64 (−1.4, 2.7) 0.54 9.8 ± 5.0 − 1.4 (−2.6, −0.19) 0.024 0.11 0.137
2 h PCI (μU/mL) 64.9 (38.5, 138.3)c 1.2 (−30.0, 19.2) 0.717 98.6 (70.1, 180.3) −23.3 (−70.9, 14.2) 0.06 0.22 0.882
Matsuda Index 2.9 (1.7, 4.1)c 0.21 (−0.84, 0.95) 0.731 2.2 (1.7, 3.4) 0.08 (−0.54, 0.99) 0.455 0.82 0.750
HOMA-IR 2.5 (1.7, 3.7)c 0.06 (−0.77, 0.86) 0.746 2.4 (1.5, 3.4) −0.05 (− 0.94, 0.44) 0.455 0.45 0.326
HOMA- β 65.9 ± 44.3 −0.38 (−11.7, 11.0) 0.947 71.9 ± 36.8 −18.6 (−30.4, −6.8) 0.003 0.027 0.011
Disposition index 0.069 (0.034, 0.094) 0.0017 (−0.05, 0.013) 0.534 0.072 (0.05, 0.14) −0.0087 (− 0.041, 0.022) 0.140 0.93 0.997
Insulinogenic index 0.58 (0.33, 0.98) −0.054 (− 0.40, 0.15) 0.25 0.63 (0.45, 1.06) −0.17 (− 0.30, 0.17) 0.018 0.79 0.586
  1. Abbreviations: BMI Body mass index, FPI Fasting plasma insulin, SBP Systolic blood pressure, DBP Diastolic blood pressure, RBC Red blood cells, PTH Parathyroid hormone, CPK Creatine phosphokinase, AST Aspartate aminotransferase, ALT Alanine aminotransferase, ALP Alkaline phosphatase, FPG Fasting plasma glucose, FPI Fasting plasma insulin, 2 h PCG 2 h post-challenge glucose, 2 h PCI 2 h post-challenge insulin, HOMA-IR Homeostatic model of assessment - insulin resistance
  2. Data are analyzed by paired sample t-test or Wilcoxon signed rank test where appropriate (level of significance P ≤ 0.05)
  3. Data are analyzed by independent sample t-test (level of significance P ≤ 0.05)
  4. # Data are analyzed by ANCOVA using a general linear model and change values for each respective outcome with age, baseline BMI, gender and ethnicity as covariates
  5. a Initial sample size; the sample size was reduced for some variables due to missing values
  6. b Data are presented as mean ± SD
  7. c Data represented by median and inter-quartile range, Mann-Whitney U-test was used to compare median of the differences
  8. d Mean change; 95% CI or IQR where appropriate in parentheses