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Table 4 Dietary mineral intake of the study population calculated from a 3-day dietary record (nutrient intake via food and supplements)

From: Characterization, dietary habits and nutritional intake of omnivorous, lacto-ovo vegetarian and vegan runners – a pilot study

  OMN
(n = 27)
p value
OMN-LOV
LOV
(n = 25)
p value
LOV-VEG
VEG
(n = 27)
p value
OMN-VEG
p value
3 groups
Reference values (m/f)*
Na (g)
 Food 2.65 (2.17, 3.12) 0.004b 1.72 (1.44, 2.00) 1.000b 1.72 (1.46, 1.99) 0.005b 0.001a 1.5
 Supplement 0 0 0  
K (g)
 Food 3.16 (2.88, 3.50) 1.000b 3.04 (2.55, 3.52) 0.005b 4.65 (3.85, 5.50) 0.014b 0.002a 4c
 Supplement 0 0.00 (0.00, 0.01) 0.00 (0.00, 0.01) 0.372a  
Ca (mg)
 Food 981 (813, 1149) 901 (716, 1085) 730 (614, 846) 0.115a 1000
 Supplement 45.1 (−32.0, 122) 0 6.37 (−2.22, 15.0) 0.214a  
P (g)
 Food 1.43 (1.26, 1.60) 1.34 (1.08, 1.61) 1.33 (1.15, 1.52) 0.495a 0.7
 Supplement 0 0 0  
Mg (mg)
 Food 346 (310, 382) 0.990b 388 (324, 452) 0.001b 599 (518, 679) 0.000b 0.000a 350/300
 Supplement 36.7 (0.44, 73.0) 53.2 (−5.58, 112) 54.3 (−7.09, 116) 0.910a  
Fe (mg)
 Food (total) 11.9 (10.6, 13.2) 1.000b 12.8 (10.8, 14.7) 0.001b 19.6 (16.8, 22.4) 0.000b 0.000a 10/15
 Plant-based iron 7.44 (6.33, 8.54) 0.105b 10.7 (8.95, 12.5) 0.000b 19.6 (16.8, 22.4) 0.000b 0.000a  
 Animal iron 4.45 (3.67, 5.24) 0.013b 2.02 (1.41, 2.61) 0.000b 0 0.000b 0.000a  
 Supplement 1.70 (−1.36, 4.77) 1.52 (−1.19, 4.24) 3.74 (−0.64, 8.12) 0.675a  
Zn (mg)
 Food 9.74 (8.32, 11.2) 8.88 (7.30, 10.5) 10.7 (9.21, 12.2) 0.214a 14/81
 Supplement 2.23 (− 1.59–6.04) 0.90 (−0.70–2.49) 0.47 (− 0.48–1.41) 0.648a  
Cu (mg)
 Food 1.63 (1.43, 1.84) 0.819b 1.85 (1.56, 2.13) 0.001b 2.93 (2.51, 3.34) 0.000b 0.000a 1.0–1.5
 Supplement 0 0 0  
Mn (mg)
 Food 4.75 (3.87, 5.62) 0.188b 6.29 (5.05, 7.54) 0.067b 8.48 (7.10, 9.85) 0.000b 0.000a 2.0–5.0
 Supplement 0 0 0  
I (μg)
 Food 88.8 (64.1, 114) 0.190b 61.6 (49.4, 73.7) 1.000b 57.7 (48.4, 67.0) 0.060b 0.048a 200
 Supplement 0 0 0  
  1. OMN omnivores, LOV lacto-ovo vegetarians, VEG vegans, *Reference values of the German, Austrian and Swiss Nutrition Societies (Deutsche, Österreichische und Schweizerische Gesellschaften für Ernährung, D-A-CH) [33]
  2. Data are presented as mean (95% CI). a Kruskal Wallis test, b Post hoc test, c Estimated values, p-values ​​in bold represent statistical significance 1 At medium phytate intake