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Table 4 Dietary mineral intake of the study population calculated from a 3-day dietary record (nutrient intake via food and supplements)

From: Characterization, dietary habits and nutritional intake of omnivorous, lacto-ovo vegetarian and vegan runners – a pilot study

 OMN
(n = 27)
p value
OMN-LOV
LOV
(n = 25)
p value
LOV-VEG
VEG
(n = 27)
p value
OMN-VEG
p value
3 groups
Reference values (m/f)*
Na (g)
 Food2.65 (2.17, 3.12)0.004b1.72 (1.44, 2.00)1.000b1.72 (1.46, 1.99)0.005b0.001a1.5
 Supplement000 
K (g)
 Food3.16 (2.88, 3.50)1.000b3.04 (2.55, 3.52)0.005b4.65 (3.85, 5.50)0.014b0.002a4c
 Supplement00.00 (0.00, 0.01)0.00 (0.00, 0.01)0.372a 
Ca (mg)
 Food981 (813, 1149)901 (716, 1085)730 (614, 846)0.115a1000
 Supplement45.1 (−32.0, 122)06.37 (−2.22, 15.0)0.214a 
P (g)
 Food1.43 (1.26, 1.60)1.34 (1.08, 1.61)1.33 (1.15, 1.52)0.495a0.7
 Supplement000 
Mg (mg)
 Food346 (310, 382)0.990b388 (324, 452)0.001b599 (518, 679)0.000b0.000a350/300
 Supplement36.7 (0.44, 73.0)53.2 (−5.58, 112)54.3 (−7.09, 116)0.910a 
Fe (mg)
 Food (total)11.9 (10.6, 13.2)1.000b12.8 (10.8, 14.7)0.001b19.6 (16.8, 22.4)0.000b0.000a10/15
 Plant-based iron7.44 (6.33, 8.54)0.105b10.7 (8.95, 12.5)0.000b19.6 (16.8, 22.4)0.000b0.000a 
 Animal iron4.45 (3.67, 5.24)0.013b2.02 (1.41, 2.61)0.000b00.000b0.000a 
 Supplement1.70 (−1.36, 4.77)1.52 (−1.19, 4.24)3.74 (−0.64, 8.12)0.675a 
Zn (mg)
 Food9.74 (8.32, 11.2)8.88 (7.30, 10.5)10.7 (9.21, 12.2)0.214a14/81
 Supplement2.23 (− 1.59–6.04)0.90 (−0.70–2.49)0.47 (− 0.48–1.41)0.648a 
Cu (mg)
 Food1.63 (1.43, 1.84)0.819b1.85 (1.56, 2.13)0.001b2.93 (2.51, 3.34)0.000b0.000a1.0–1.5
 Supplement000 
Mn (mg)
 Food4.75 (3.87, 5.62)0.188b6.29 (5.05, 7.54)0.067b8.48 (7.10, 9.85)0.000b0.000a2.0–5.0
 Supplement000 
I (μg)
 Food88.8 (64.1, 114)0.190b61.6 (49.4, 73.7)1.000b57.7 (48.4, 67.0)0.060b0.048a200
 Supplement000 
  1. OMN omnivores, LOV lacto-ovo vegetarians, VEG vegans, *Reference values of the German, Austrian and Swiss Nutrition Societies (Deutsche, Österreichische und Schweizerische Gesellschaften für Ernährung, D-A-CH) [33]
  2. Data are presented as mean (95% CI). a Kruskal Wallis test, b Post hoc test, c Estimated values, p-values ​​in bold represent statistical significance 1 At medium phytate intake