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Table 1 Characteristics of study subjects in four seasons (n = 78)

From: Relationship between ethanol consumption and TBL2 rs17145738 on LDL-C concentration in Japanese adults: a four season 3-day weighed diet record study

 WinteraSpringaSummeraAutumnaPb
Mean or n SD or (%)Mean SDMean SDMean SD
Men51 (65.4%)    
Smokerc13 (16.7%)    
Age (years)43.5 ± 9.6    
Physical activity (METs・hour/day)9.0± 2.0    
BMI (kg/m2)22.4 ± 1.222.4 ± 1.222.3 ± 1.222.4 ± 1.20.30
Triglyceride (mmol/L)0.90 ± 1.720.93 ± 1.780.92± 1.680.91 ± 1.690.61
Total cholesterol (mmol/L)5.35 ± 0.915.12 ± 0.76**5.12 ± 0.86**5.11 ± 0.83<0.01
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L)1.67 ± 1.261.56 ± 1.25***1.62 ± 1.26**1.60 ± 1.26**<0.001
LDL cholesterol (mmol/L)3.06 ± 1.302.95 ± 1.252.89 ± 1.31**2.95 ± 1.260.02
3-day WDRs
 Energy intake (MJ/day)8.2 ± 1.78.0 ± 2.37.9 ± 1.98.1 ± 2.00.48
 Protein (g/MJ)8.6 ± 1.28.6 ± 1.28.5 ± 1.18.6 ± 1.21.00
 Fat (g/MJ)7.6 ± 1.57.8 ± 1.57.5 ± 1.47.7 ± 1.40.35
 SFA (g/MJ)2.2 ± 0.62.2 ± 0.52.2 ± 0.52.2 ± 0.50.92
 MUFA (g/MJ)2.8 ± 0.62.9 ± 0.72.8 ± 0.62.9 ± 0.60.37
 PUFA (g/MJ)1.7 ± 1.31.7 ± 1.31.6 ± 1.31.7 ± 1.30.09
 Cholesterol (mg/MJ)35.0 ± 1.437.8 ± 1.437.9 ± 1.438.9 ± 1.40.13
 Carbohydrate (g/MJ)31.8 ± 3.631.4 ± 3.931.9 ± 3.732.0 ± 3.80.55
 TDF (g/MJ)1.7 ± 1.41.7 ± 1.41.6 ± 1.41.8 ± 1.40.33
 Ethanol (g/day)2.2 ± 2.52.1 ± 2.82.3 ± 2.71.7 ± 2.30.58
FFQ
 Energy intake (MJ/day)7.2 ± 1.4    
 Protein (g/MJ)7.3 ± 1.2    
 Fat (g/MJ)6.2 ± 1.6    
 SFA (g/MJ)1.5 ± 0.4    
 MUFA (g/MJ)2.3 ± 0.7    
 PUFA (g/MJ)1.7 ± 1.3    
 Cholesterol (mg/MJ)32.6 ± 1.3    
 Carbohydrate (g/MJ)34.3 ± 3.5    
 TDF (g/MJ)1.4 ± 1.3    
 Ethanol (g/day)5.1 ± 3.9    
  1. Abbreviations: 3-day WDRs 3-day weighed dietary records, SFA saturated fatty acid, MUFA monounsaturated fatty acid, PUFA polyunsaturated fatty acid, TDF total dietary fiber, FFQ food frequency questionnaire. The following variables were log-transformed to improve normality: physical activity; BMI; triglyceride; HDL cholesterol; LDL cholesterol; protein; PUFA; dietary cholesterol; TDF; ethanol consumption. P <0.05 is shown as bold. *P <0.05, **P <0.01, ***P <0.001 compared with winter using Dunnett's test. aThe mean and SD were estimated from the subjects without missing values in each season. bMixed-effect models were applied for analyzing seasonal variation with seasons (1, winter; 2, spring; 3, summer; 4, autumn) as a fixed effect and subject ID as a random intercept, and the analyses were performed using as much data as possible. cEx-smokers were defined as subjects who quit smoking more than 2 years previously and were included as smokers because of being a small number of them.