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Table 2 Nutritional status of participants (serum)

From: Overweight & obese Australian adults and micronutrient deficiency

Outcome Reference n %
BMI (kg/m2) > 25 overweight 42 33.1
> 30 obese 85 66.9
Vitamin E (μg/mL) < 5 39 31.0
Within range 79 62.7
> 18 8 6.3
Vitamin B12 (pg/mL) < 110 2 1.6
Within range 72 57.1
> 800 52 41.3
Vitamin C (mg/dL) < 0.4 0 0.0
Within range 5 3.9
> 1.5 122 96.1
Vitamin A (μg/dL) < 30 127 100.0
Within range 0 0.0
> 80 0 0.0
Vitamin D (ng/mL) < 20 113 89.0
(No reference) 14 11.0
Folate (ng/mL) < 3 90 72.0
Within range 35 28.0
> 20 0 0.0
Thyroglobulin (ng/mL) < 2 16 13.4
Within range 101 84.9
> 50 2 1.7
Potassium (mmol/L) < 3.5 127 100.0
Within range 0 0.0
> 5.1 0 0.0
Sodium (mmol/L) < 136 120 94.5
Within range 3 2.4
> 145 4 3.1
Iron (μg/dL) - Male < 65 3 5.6
Within range 48 8.9
> 175 3 5.6
Iron (μg/dL) - Female < 50 4 5.5
Within range 68 93.2
> 170 1 1.4
Zinc (μg/dL) < 70 126 99.2
Within range 0 0.0
> 120 1 0.0
Calcium (mg/dL) < 4.64 116 91.3
Within range 4 3.1
> 5.28 7 5.5
Magnesium (mg/dL) < 1.6 127 100.0
Within range 0 0.0
> 2.6 0 0.0
  1. Measurement units were converted to be consistent with the clinical reference values. “<“may indicate deficiency, “>“may indicate excess, except for thyroglobulin, where a higher value may indicate iodine deficiency