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Table 3 Self-recorded micronutrient status of participants at baseline compared to nutrient reference values

From: Overweight & obese Australian adults and micronutrient deficiency

Outcome Gender Age (years) Reference Mean ± SEM Median n
Vitamin E (mg) Male 19–70 10 (AI) 8.5 ± 0.6 8.1 54
Female 19–70 7 (AI) 9.1 ± 0.6 7.9 72
Vitamin C (mg) M/F 19–70 45 (RDI) 103.3 ± 6.9 76.9 126
Retinol (μg)a Male 19–70 900 REa (RDI) 369.0 ± 23.8 322.6 126
Beta carotene (μg)a Female 19–70 700 REa (RDI) 2681.5 ± 197.8 2134.2 126
Vitamin D (μg) M/F 19–50 5 (AI) 3.6 ± 0.3 3.3 63
M/F 51–70 10 (AI) 3.7 ± 0.7 2.8 63
Folate (μg) M/F 19–70 400 (RDI) 373.2 ± 17.0 332.4 126
Iodine (μg) M/F 19–70 150 (RDI) 128.4 ± 4.6 120.2 126
Potassium (mg) Male 19–70 3800 (AI) 3156.3 ± 116.3 3207.4 63
Female 19–70 2800 (AI) 3034.2 ± 88.8 3053.1 63
Sodium (mg) M/F 19–70 460–920 (AI) 2752.4 ± 100.0 2603.2 126
Iron (mg) Male 19–70 8 (RDI) 13.7 ± 0.7 13.0 54
Female 19–50 18 (RDI) 11.4 ± 0.6 11.2 37
Female 51–70 8 (RDI) 11.5 ± 0.7 10.6 35
Zinc (mg) Male 19–70 14 (RDI) 14.3 ± 0.8 13.6 54
Female 19–70 8 (RDI) 12.2 ± 0.6 11.2 72
Calcium (mg) Male 19–70 1000 (RDI) 967.0 ± 64.6 896.7 54
Female 19–50 1000 (RDI) 861.2 ± 52.9 869.4 37
Female 51–70 1300 (RDI) 828.6 ± 48.0 797.6 35
Magnesium (mg) Male 19–30 400 (RDI) 414.2 ± 46.0 444.8 3
Male 31–70 420 (RDI) 395.4 ± 17.0 385.2 51
Female 19–30 310 (RDI) 310 ± 58.5 301.6 6
Female 31–70 320 (RDI) 360.2 ± 16.1 348.8 66
  1. AI Adequate Intake, RDI Recommended Dietary Intake, RE Retinol Equivalents. Use of AI and RDI, as well as age and gender values, is based on currently available data. Incomplete data from FoodWorks nutritional analysis software means that direct comparisons between Retinol Equivalents and dietary intake couldn’t be made. a1 μg Retinol Equivalent is equivalent to: 1 μg of all-trans retinol; 6 μg all-trans ß-carotene; or 12 μg of a-carotene, ß-cryptoxanthin and other provitamin A carotenoids [15]