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Table 1 Mitochondrial respiration protocol reagents listed in order of titrations and the corresponding pathway controls and respiratory states

From: Neonatal diet impacts liver mitochondrial bioenergetics in piglets fed formula or human milk

Substrates Abbreviations Pathway control/
Respiratory state
Pathway to Q Explanation
Pyruvate (5 mM),
Malate (2 mM),
Glutamate (10 mM)
PMG N/PMG(L) CI LEAK (L) respiration,
no adenylates
ADP (5 mM) ADP N/PMG(P) CI OXPHOS capacity (P)
Succinate (10 mM) SUC NS/PMGS(P) CI + CII Complex I + II-linked (P)
Oligomycin (0.2 μg/ml) OMY ROX ROX Inhibition of CV
Antimycin A (12.5 μM) AMA ROX ROX Inhibition of CIII
  1. Abbreviations: Adenosine diphosphate (ADP), Complex I (CI), Complex II (CII), LEAK (L), NADH- (N) pathway, OXPHOS capacity (P), Residual oxygen consumption (ROX)