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Table 3 Prevalence of MetS risk factors at baseline and six-month post intervention

From: Effect of a nutrition education programme on the metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients at a level 5 Hospital in Kenya: “a randomized controlled trial”

Parameter   Before the Intervention Six-month Post intervention
NEP
n (%)
NE
n (%)
C
n (%)
χ2 P value NEP
n (%)
NE
n (%)
C
n (%)
NEP NE
Odd ratio a
(95% CI)
P value Odd ratio b
(95% CI)
P value
High HbA1c   43(84.3) 38(74.5) 38(74.5) 1.89 0.39 23(47.9) 24(49.0) 16(34.8) 2.08(0.85–5.09) 0.111 2.04(0.84–4.92 0.114
High FBS   51(100.0) 51(100) 51(100)    38(79.2) 41(83.7) 42(91.3) 2.91(0.82–10.36) 0.100 2.30(0.56–7.34) 0.114
High WHR   45(88.2) 48(94.1) 40(78.4) 5.64 0.06 42(87.5) 46(93.9) 45(97.5) 0.09(0.01–0.93) 0.043* 0.28(0.03–3.00) 0.294
BMI > 18.5–24.9 18(35.3) 18(35.3) 17(33.3) 11.10 0.09 29(60.4) 19(38.8) 13(28.3) 4.62(1.32–16.20) 0.017* 4.25(1.09–16.59) 0.038*
  > 25–29.9 15(29.4) 27(52.7) 25(49.0)    13(27.1) 26(53.1) 22(47.8) 1.08(0.31–3.81) 0.915 3.13(0.85–11.51) 0.086
  > 30–34.9 23(45.3 9(10.8) 11(17.6))    8(12.5) 4(8.2) 13(23.9 Reference    
Elevated WC   47(92.2) 45(88.2) 47(92.2) 0.629 0.73 28(58.3) 42(85.7) 46(97.8) .0.03(0.003–0.22) 0.001** 0.09(0.01–0.72) 0.024
Elevated BPa   37(72.5) 45(88.2) 37(72.5) 4.84 0.089 24(50.0) 24(49.0) 37(80.4) 4.17(1.59–10.91) 0.004** 4.29(1.67–11.03) 0.002**
Elevated BPb   34(66.7) 38(74.5) 28(54.9) 4.388 0.11 23(47.9) 21(42.9) 32(69.6) 0.395(0.16–0.97) 0.043* 0.33(0.14–0.78) 0.412
Elevated TG   32(62.7) 28(54.9) 39(76.5) 4.083 0.130 17(35.4) 31(63.3) 30(65.2) 0.31(0.13–0.75) 0.010 * 0.59(0.37–2.10) 0.785
Reduced HDL-Ca   19(37.3) 11(21.6) 14(27.5) 3.126 0.21 1(2.1) 5(10.2) 10(21.7) 17.55(2.05–150.37) 0.009** 2.66(0.80–8.53) 0.111
Reduced HDL-Cb   8(5.7) 5(9.8) 5(9.8) 1.333 0.567 1(2.1) 1(2.0) 1(2.2) 0.59(0.03–11.32) 0.730 0.91(0.05–16.86) 0.949
Dyslipidemia   35(68.6) 32)(62.7) 39(76.5) 1.700 0.32 18(36.7) 31(61.3) 30(65.2) 0.30(0.13–0.74) 0.008 0.89(0.37–2.11) 0.788
Elevated TC   26(51.0) 16(31.4) 22(43.1) 4.083 0.13 15(31.2) 18(36.7) 23(50.0) 2.45(0.99—6.04) 0.051 0.96(0.41–2.25) 0.918
LDL   29(59.9) 15 (29.4) 24(47.1) 7.994 0.244 25(52.1) 35(71.4) 31(67.4) 1.96(0.805–4.75) 0.14 0.87(0.35–2.16) 0.77
MetSa   46(90.2) 44(86.3) 45(88.2) 0.378 0.828 25(52.1) 34(69.4) 42(91.3) 0.82(0.02–0.28) 0.000** 0.20(0.06–0.68) 0.01*
MetSb   46(90.2) 45(88.2) 41(80.2) 2.318 0.31 28(58.3) 38(77.6) 41(89.1) 0.20(0.067–0.57) 0.003** 0.50(0.17–1.52) 0.22
MetS risk factorsa 1–2 4(7.8) 7(13.8)) 6(11.8) 13.323 0.101 20(41.7) 11(22.4)) 5(10.8) 24.03(5.78–99.88) 0.000 ** 5.63(1.63–21.77) 0.007**
  3 10(19.6) 21(41.2) 13(25.5)    20(41.2) 27(55.1) 28(60.8 3.32(11.10–99.60) 0.033* 1.48(0.59–3.74) 0.404
  4–5 37(62.7) 23(45.1) 32(63.3)    8(16.7) 12(26.4) 20(43.5) reference    
MetS risk factorsb 1–2 5(9.8) 6(11.8) 10(19.6) 2.492 0.65 20(41.7) 11(22.4) 5(10.8) 10.37(2.72–39.53) 0.001** 2.75(0.79–9.57) 0.011*
  3 25(49.0) 26(51.0) 22(43.1)    20(41.2) 27(55.1) 28(60.8) 2.92(0.94–9.10) 0.65 1.73(0.67–4.45) 0.258
  4–5 21(41.2) 19(37.3) 19(37.3)    8(16.7) 11(22.4) 13(28.3) reference    
  1. Data are presented as proportion; n (percentages; %) chi-square (χ2) test; *statistical significance at p value< 0.05.
  2. BMI obese > 30 kg/m2, Elevated Waist hip ratio (WHR) > 0.90 for men and > 0.85 for women, Elevated blood pressure a > 140/90 mmHg or treatment of previously diagnosed hypertension (WHO criteria); Elevated blood pressure b > 130/85 mmHg or treatment of previously diagnosed hypertension (harmonized criteria), Reduced serum HDL cholesterol (a) < 0.9 mmol/L for men or < 1.0 mmol/L for women or specific treatment for this abnormality (WHO criteria); Reduced serum HDL cholesterol b < 1.0 mmol/L for men or < 1.3 mmol/L for women or specific treatment for this abnormality (harmonized criteria), Elevated triglycerides (TAG) > 1.7 mmol/L or specific treatment for this abnormality (both criteria), Waist circumference (WC) ≥94 cm for men or ≥ 80 cm for women, Elevated TC > 5.2 mmol/l, Elevated LDL-cholesterol> 2.6 mmol/l, Dyslipidemia- reduced HDL(< 0.9 mmol/L for men or < 1.0 mmol/L for women or specific treatment for this abnormality) or /and elevated TG(> 1.7 mmol/l) MetSa: Harmonized criteria; MetSb: WHO criteria, NEP; Nutrition education peer to peer support group, NE; Nutrition education group, C; control group,χ2; chi square Odd ratioa –comparison MetS parameters of NEP and C, Odds ratiob-comparison of MetS parameters of NE and C, CI; confidence interval.
  3. Adjusted for age, gender, education level, marital status, years; lived with diabetes, family history of diabetes, and complications.