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Table 1 Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of senior citizens by household food security status

From: Food insecurity among senior citizens in high out-migration areas: evidence from Western Nepal

CharacteristicsTotal Sample
n = 260
Food Security statusp-value
Food SecureFood Insecure
n = 152 (58.5%)n = 108 (41.5%)
 n (%)n (%)n (%) 
Migration of adult children   0.020*
 No127 (48.8)65 (42.8)62 (57.4) 
 Yes133 (51.2)87 (57.2)46 (42.6) 
Age (mean ± SD)68.9 ± 7.669.4 ± 6.968.1 ± 8.40.192a
Age category   < 0.001*
 60–69148 (56.9)72 (47.4)76 (70.4) 
 ≥ 70 years112 (43.1)80 (52.6)32 (29.6) 
Sex   0.739
 Male150 (57.7)89 (58.6)61 (56.5) 
 Female110 (42.3)63 (41.4)47 (43.5) 
Ethnicity   0.120
 Upper Caste174 (66.9)109 (71.7)65 (60.2) 
 Janajatis53 (20.4)25 (16.4)28 (25.9) 
 Dalit33 (12.7)18 (11.8)15 (13.9) 
Family structure   0.599
 Nuclear11 (4.2)8 (5.3)3 (2.8) 
 Joint154 (59.2)90 (59.2)64 (59.3) 
 Extended95 (36.5)54 (35.5)41 (38.0) 
Smoking status   < 0.001*
 No176 (67.7)124 (81.6)52 (48.1) 
 Yes84 (32.3)28 (18.4)56 (51.9) 
Family’s monthly income (USD)
 < 100170 (65.4)87 (57.2)83 (76.9)0.001*
 ≥ 10090 (34.6)65 (42.8)25 (23.1) 
Family’s monthly income (USD) (median ± IQR)80.90 ± 80.9197.08 ± 85.3664.72 ± 58.25 
Primary income source of family   0.012*
 Agriculture145 (55.8)77 (50.7)68 (63.0) 
 Business29 (11.2)23 (15.1)6 (5.6) 
 Service /Pension/Allowance34 (13.1)25 (16.4)9 (8.3) 
 Wages-based labor52 (20.0)27 (17.8)25 (23.1) 
Own cultivable land   < 0.001*
 No38 (14.6)10 (6.6)28 (25.9) 
 Yes222 (85.4)142 (93.4)80 (74.1) 
Geriatric allowance recipient   0.001*
 No153 (58.8)76 (50.0)77 (71.3) 
 Yes107 (41.2)76 (50.0)31 (28.7) 
  1. a: p-value from independent t-test; others are from Chi-Square test
  2. *: p < 0.05
  3. SD Standard deviation, IQR Interquartile Range