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Table 1 Factors associated with under-nutrition, Alupe Sub-County Hospital, 2017a

From: Factors associated with malnutrition in children < 5 years in western Kenya: a hospital-based unmatched case control study

Variable Category Cases n = 79 (n/%) Controls n = 236 (n/%) OR 95% CI P value
Residence Urban 69 (87.3) 219 (92.7) 1.9 0.8–4.3 0.21
Rural 10 (12.7) 17 (7.2)    
ANC attendance Yes 5 (6.3) 2 (< 1) 7.9 1.5–41.6 0.02
No 74 (93.7) 234 (99.1)    
Illness during pregnancy1 Yes 43 (54.4) 102 (43.2) 1.7 1.0–2.8 0.07
No 33 (41.7) 129 (54.6)    
Gestation Pre-term 4 (5.1) 6 (2.5) 2.0 0.6–7.4 0.46
Term 75 (94.9) 230 (97.5)    
Low birth weight 2 Low 13 (16.5) 14 (5.9) 2.8 1.2–6.2 0.02
Normal 57 (72.2) 169 (71.6)    
Delayed developmental milestones Delayed 11 (13.9) 2 (< 1) 18.9 4.1–87.5 < 0.001
Normal 68 (86.1) 234 (99.1)    
Deworming Yes 49 (62.0) 163 (69.1) 0.7 0.4–1.2 0.31
No 30 (38.0) 73 (30.9)    
Pre-lacteal feeds 3 Yes 25 (31.6) 50 (21.2) 1.7 1.0–3.1 0.08
No 53 (67.1) 185 (78.4)    
Mother’s education level 4 None 11 (13.9) 18 (7.6) 2.0 0.9–4.4 0.14
Other 67 (84.8) 218 (92.4)    
Father’s education level 5 None 7 (8.9) 5 (2.1) 4.6 1.4–15.0 0.02
Other 69 (87.3) 227 (96.2)    
Average monthly income KES. ≥5000 25 (31.6) 96 (40.7) 0.7 0.4–1.2 0.20
< 5000 54 (68.4) 140 (59.3)    
Birth order ≥5 8 (10.1) 11 (4.7) 2.3 0.9–6.0 0.14
< 5 71 (89.9) 225 (95.3)    
Number of house occupants ≥6 41 (51.9) 88 (37.3) 1.8 1.1–3.0 0.03
< 6 38 (48.1) 148 (62.7)    
  1. a2 cases and 5 controls were brought by their guardians who did not know whether the child’s mother had any illness during pregnancy; 6 cases and 52 controls had high birth weight while 3 cases and 1 control were brought by guardians who did not know their birth weight; 1 case and 1 control had never been breastfed since birth (were on formula feeds); 1 case was brought by a guardian who did not know the mother’s educational level; 3 cases and 4 controls were brought by guardians who did not know the father’s education levels