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Table 1 Characteristics of the included studies and outcomes reported

From: Risk factors and morbidities associated with childhood obesity in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic scoping review

No. Author & date Study design Country Setting Sample size Age range (years) Gender Outcome reported
1 Baumgartner et al. 2013 [80] Placebo-controlled, double-blind intervention trial. South Africa Rural, urban 321 6–11 Male, female Morbidity
2 Craig et al. 2016 [50] Cross-sectional survey South Africa Rural 1519 7–15 Male, female Risk factors
3 Feeley et al. 2013 [61] Longitudinal study South Africa Urban 1298 13–17 Male, female Risk factors
4 Ginsburg et al. 2013 [72] Longitudinal study South Africa Urban 1613 15 Male, female Risk factors
5 Kimani-Murage et al. 2010 [92] Cross-sectional survey South Africa Rural 3511 1–20 Male female Risk factors, morbidity
6 Kimani-Murage et al. 2011 [76] Cross-sectional survey South Africa Rural 1848 10–20 Male, female Risk factors
7 Lesiapeto et al. 2016 [77] Retrospective survey (Secondary data analysis) South Africa Rural 2485 <  5 Male, female Risk factors
8 Meko et al. 2015 [78] Cross-sectional survey South Africa Urban 415 13–15 Male, female Risk factors
9 Mokabane et al. 2014 [79] Case study South Africa Peri-urban 56 13–19 Female Risk factors
10 Munthali et al. 2016 [81] Longitudinal study South Africa Urban 1824 5–18 Male, female Morbidity
11 Negash et al. 2017 [93] Cross-sectional survey South Africa Urban 1559 7–18 Male, female Risk factor, morbidity
12 Pienaar 2015 [29] Longitudinal study South Africa Rural, urban 574 6–9 Male, female Risk factors
13 Pisa et al. 2015 [30] Cross-sectional survey South Africa Rural 388 11–15 Male, female Risk factors
14 Pretorius et al. 2019 [31] Cross-sectional survey South Africa Rural, urban 1785 6–12 Male, female Risk factors
15 Reddy et al. 2012 [32] Cross-sectional survey South Africa Rural, urban 4010 Mean = 16.5 Male, female Risk factors
16 Sedibe et al. 2018 [33] Cross-sectional survey South Africa Rural, urban 3490 11–15 Male, female Risk factors
17 Steyn et al. 2011 [34] Retrospective survey (Secondary data analysis) South Africa Rural, urban 2469 1–9 Male, female Risk factors
18 Symington et al. 2016 [35] Retrospective survey (Secondary data analysis) South Africa Rural, urban 519 3–9 Male, female Risk factors
19 Zeelie et al. 2010 [84] Cross-sectional survey South Africa Rural, Urban 232 5–19 Male, female Morbidity
20 Adegoke et al. 2009 [36] Cross-sectional survey Nigeria Semi-urban 720 6–18 Male, female Risk factors
21 Adesina et al. 2012 [37] Cross-sectional survey Nigeria Urban 960 10–19 Male, female Risk factors
22 Akodu et al. 2012 [38] Cross-sectional survey Nigeria Urban 160 2–15 Male, female Risk factors
23 Ene-Obong et al. 2012 [40] Cross-sectional survey Nigeria Urban 1599 5–18 Male, female Risk factors
24 Maruf et al. 2013 [41] Cross-sectional survey Nigeria Urban 9014 2–18 Male, female Risk factors
25 Musa et al. 2012 [42] Cross-sectional survey Nigeria Rural, urban 3240 9–16 Male, female Risk factors
26 Nwaiwu et al. 2015 [85] Cross-sectional survey Nigeria Not specified 406 2–15 Male, female Morbidity
27 Oduwole et al. 2012 [86] Cross-sectional survey Nigeria Urban 885 9–18 Male, female Morbidity
28 Omisore et al. 2015 [87] Cross-sectional survey Nigeria Not specified 1000 10–19 Male, female Morbidity
29 Omuemu et al. 2010 [43] Cross-sectional survey Nigeria Urban 300 10–19 Male, female Risk factors
30 Opara et al. 2010 [44] Cross-sectional survey Nigeria Rural, urban 985 2.5–14 Male, female Risk factors
31 Senbanjo et al. 2010 [45] Cross-sectional survey Nigeria Urban 570 5–19 Male, female Risk factors
32 Senbanjo et al. 2012 [88] Cross-sectional survey Nigeria Urban 423 10–19 Male, female Morbidity
33 Uwaezuoke et al. 2016 [89] Cross-sectional survey Nigeria Urban 2419 10–19 Male, female Morbidity
34 Mekonnen et al. 2018 [46] Cross-sectional survey Ethiopia Rural, urban 634 6–12 Male, female Risk factors
35 Moges et al. 2018 [47] Cross-sectional survey Ethiopia Urban 1276 10–19 Male, female Risk factors
36 Sorrie et al. 2017 [48] Cross-sectional survey Ethiopia Urban 504 3–5 Male, female Risk factors
37 Tadesse et al. 2017 [49] Cross-sectional survey Ethiopia Urban 462 3–6 Male, female Risk factors
38 Teshome et al. 2013 [51] Cross-sectional survey Ethiopia Urban 559 10–19 Male, female Risk factors
39 Wakayo et al. 2016 [52] Cross-sectional survey Ethiopia Rural, urban 174 11–18 Male, female Risk factors
40 Adamo et al. 2011 [53] Cross-sectional survey Kenya Rural, urban 179 9–13 Male, female Risk factors
41 Gewa, 2010 [39] DHS Kenya Rural, urban 1495 3–5 Male, female Risk factors
42 Kimani-Murage et al. 2015 [54] Cross-sectional survey Kenya Urban 3335 <  5 Male, female Risk factors
43 Muthuri et al. 2014 [55] Cross-sectional survey Kenya Urban 563 9–13 Male, female Risk factors
44 Wachira et al. 2018 [56] Cross-sectional survey Kenya Urban 563 9–11 Male, female Risk factors
45 Choukem et al. 2017 [57] Cross-sectional Survey Cameroon Urban 1343 3–13 Male, female Risk factors
46 Chedjou-Nono et al. 2017 [90] Cross-sectional survey Cameroon urban 38 cases: 38 controls 3–17 Male, female Morbidity
47 Navti et al. 2014 [58] Cross-sectional survey Cameroon Rural, urban 557 5–12 Male, female Risk factors
48 Tchoubi et al. 2015 [59] Retrospective survey (Secondary data analysis) Cameroon Rural, urban 4518 <  5 Male, female Risk factors
49 Mosha et al. 2010 [60] Cross-sectional survey Tanzania Urban 428 6–12 Male, female Risk factors
50 Muhihi et al. 2013 [94] Cross-sectional survey Tanzania Rural, urban 446 6–17 Male, female Risk factors, morbidity
51 Mushengezi et al. 2014 [91] Cross-sectional survey Tanzania Urban 582 12–19 Male, female morbidity
52 Mwaikambo et al. 2015 [62] Cross-sectional survey Tanzania Urban 1722 7–14 Male, female Risk factors
53 Adom et al. 2019 [63] Cross-sectional survey Ghana Urban 543 8–11 Male, female Risk factors
54 Mohammed et al. 2012 [64] Cross-sectional survey Ghana Urban 270 5–15 Male, female Risk factors
55 Nagwa et al. 2011 [65] Cross-sectional survey Sudan Urban 1138 10–18 Male, female Risk factors
56 Salman et al. 2011 [82] Cross-sectional survey Sudan Urban 304 6–12 Male, female Morbidity
57 Christoph et al. 2017 [66] Cross-sectional survey Uganda Rural, urban 148 11–16 Male, female Risk factors
58 Turi et al. 2013 [67] Retrospective survey (Secondary data analysis) Uganda Rural, urban 1099 <  5 Male, female Risk factors
59 Wrotniak et al. 2012 [68] Cross-sectional survey Botswana Rural, urban 707 12–18 Male, female Risk factors
60 Juwara et al. 2016 [69] Cross-sectional survey Gambia Urban 960 13–15 Male, female Risk factors
61 Van den Berg et al. 2014 [70] Cross-sectional survey Lesotho Urban 221 16 Male, female Risk factors
62 Caleyachetty et al. 2012 [71] Cross-sectional survey Mauritius Rural, urban 241 9–10 Male, female Risk factors
63 Dos Santos et al. 2015 [83] Cross-sectional survey Mozambique Urban, suburban 323 10–15 Male, female Morbidity
64 Bovet et al. 2010 [73] Cross-sectional survey Seychelles Rural, urban 8462 Mean ages; 9.2, 12.6 and 15.3 years Male, female Risk factors
65 Sagbo et al. 2018 [74] Cross-sectional survey Togo Urban 634 8–17 Male, female Risk factors
66 Kambondo et al. 2018 [75] Cross-sectional survey Zimbabwe Rural, urban 974 6–12 Male, female Risk factors
67 Peltzer et al. 2011 [27] Retrospective survey (Secondary data analysis) Ghana, Uganda Not specified 5613 13–15 Male, female Risk factors
68 Manyanga et al. 2014 [28] Cross-sectional survey Benin, Ghana, Mauritania, Malawi Not specified 23,496 11–17 Male, female Risk factors