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Table 3 Descriptive characteristics of the included mothers and children in the Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey (2005–2015)

From: The burden and correlates of childhood undernutrition in Tanzania according to composite index of anthropometric failure

Variables 2014–15 2010 2004–05
(N = 8913) (N = 6774) (N = 7107)
n (%) n (%) n (%)
Household’s Characteristics
Residence
  Urban 2013 (22.6) 1231(18.2) 1210(17)
  Rural 6900 (77.4) 5543(81.8) 5897(82.9)
Gender of household head
  Male 7501(84.2) 5681(83.9) 5974(84)
  Female 1412(15.8) 1093(16.1) 1133(15.9)
Age of the household head (years)
  15 to 29 1462(16.4) 1095(16.2) 1426(20.1)
  30 to 49 5269(59.1) 4142(61.1) 4099(57.7)
  Above 50 2185(24.5) 1537(22.7) 1582(22.2)
Household wealth
  Poorest 2064(23.2) 1387(20.5) 1569(22.1)
  Poorer 1859(20.9) 1561(22.9) 1421(19.9)
  Middle 1740(19.5) 1449(21.4) 1439(20.2)
  Richer 1836(20.6) 1389(20.5) 1573(22.2)
  Richest 1414(15.9) 988(14.7) 1105(15.5)
Mother’s Characteristics
Mothers BMI
  Underweight 643 (7.2) 663(9.8) 622(8.8)
  Normal 5990 (67.2) 4768(70.4) 5390(75.8)
  Overweight 1548 (17.4) 1000(14.8) 825(11.6)
  Obesity 732 (8.22) 343(5.1) 270(3.8)
Age of mother (years)
  15–24 2589 (29.1) 1824(26.9) 2051(28.8)
  25–39 5333 (59.8) 4211(62.1) 4424(62.3)
  40–49 991 (11.1) 739(10.9) 632(8.9)
Marital status of mother
  Single 418(4.7) 279(4.1) 267(3.7)
  Married/with partner 7607(85.3) 5910(87.2) 6286(88.4)
  Divorced/separated 888(9.9) 585(8.6) 554(7.8)
Mothers age at first birth (years)
   < 15 220(2.5) 202(2.9) 246(3.5)
  15–29 8590(96.4) 6516(96.2) 6811(95.8)
  30–50 103(1.15) 56(0.8) 50(0.7)
Number of birth
  One 3827(42.9) 2650(39) 2723(38.3)
  Two 4059(45.6) 3294(48.5) 3454(48.5)
  Three and above 1027(11.5) 848(12.5) 930(13.1)
Education of mother
  No education 1948(21.8) 1734(25.5) 1949(27.4)
  Primary 5359(60.1) 4271(63) 4564(64.2)
  Secondary 1528(17.2) 751(11.2) 510(7.2)
  Higher 80(0.9) 18(0.3) 84(1.2)
Children’s Characteristics
  Age of child (months)
   < 6 975(10.9) 738(10.9) 758(10.6)
  6 to 23 3070(34.4) 2207(32.6) 2399(33.7)
  24–35 1728(19.4) 1268(18.8) 1460(20.6)
   > 35 3140(35.2) 2561(37.8) 2490(35.1)
Gender of child
  Male 4471(50.2) 3365(49.7) 3556(50)
  Female 4442(49.8) 3409(50.3) 3551(49.9)
Birth weight
  Above 2500 g 5148(57.8) 3260(48.2) 3202(45)
  Below 2500 g 347(3.9) 215(3.2) 245(3.4)
  Not reported 3418(38.5) 3299(48.7) 3660(51.5)
Employment of mother
  Not working 2257(25.3) 1409(20.8) 964(13.6)
  Last year 420(4.7) 147(2.2) 302(4.3)
  Working currently 6236(69.9) 5218(77) 5841(82.1)
Place of delivery
  Health facility 5462(61.3) 3258(48.1) 3230(45.4)
  At home 3314(37.2) 3430(50.6) 3871(54.5)
  Other places 139(1.6) 86(1.2) 4(0.1)
Diarrhea
  No 7837(97.9) 5813(85.8) 6120(86.2)
  Yes 1081(12.1) 961(14.2) 987(13.8)
Symptoms of fever
  No 7317(82.1) 5244(77.5) 5105(71.9)
  Yes 1596(17.9) 1524(22.5) 1999(28.1)
Initiationof breastfeeding
  Within an hour 3344(37.5) 2296(33.8) 3946(55.5)
  After an hour 2699(30.3) 2090(30.8) 2559(35.9)
  After one day 2870(32.2) 2394(35.3) 602(8.5)