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Table 4 Crude and adjusted factors associated with anthropometric failure among children under 5 years of age in Tanzanian Demographic and Health Surveys (2005–2015)

From: The burden and correlates of childhood undernutrition in Tanzania according to composite index of anthropometric failure

  TDHS 2014–15 TDHS 2010 TDHS 2004–05
Variables PR Adjusted PR PR Adjusted PR PR Adjusted PR
(95% CI) (95% CI) (95% CI) (95% CI) (95% CI) (95% CI)
Residence
 Urban 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 NA
 Rural 1.39(1.29–1.51)*** 1.11(1.01–1.21)* 1.36(1.25–1.47)*** 1.12(1.01–1.23)* 1.36(1.25–1.49)*  
Mothers BMI
 Underweight 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0  
 Normal 0.86(0.78–0.94)** 0.86(0.79–0.95)** 0.82(0.76–0.88)*** 0.85(0.79–0.92)*** 0.87(0.81–0.95)*** 0.88(0.82–0.95)**
 Overweight 0.72(0.64–0.79)*** 0.79(0.71–0.88)*** 0.69(0.62–0.76)*** 0.78(0.70–0.86)*** 0.64(0.56–0.73)*** 0.74(0.65–0.84)***
 Obesity 0.52(0.45–0.61)** 0.65(0.56–0.76)*** 0.51(0.42–0.61)*** 0.61(0.51–0.74)*** 0.48(0.38–0.60)*** 0.66(0.53–0.82)***
Mothers age at first birth
  < 15 1.0 NA 1.0 NA 1.0 NA
 15–29 0.86(0.74–1.00)   0.99(0.85–1.16)   0.94(0.81–1.08)  
 30–50 0.80(0.59–1.08)   0.90(0.64–1.27)   0.90(0.63–1.30)  
Number of birth in the five years
 One 1.0 NA 1.0 NA 1.0 NA
 Two 1.03(0.97–1.09)   1.1(1.04–1.16)**   1.01(0.96–1.08)  
 Three and above 1.03(0.95–1.13)   1.05(0.96–1.14)   0.90(0.82–0.99)  
Gender of the head of the household      NA
 Male 1.0 NA 1.0 NA 1.0  
 Female 1.06(0.99–1.14)   1.01(0.94–1.09)   1.09(1.02–1.17)*  
Age of the head of the household
 15 to 29 1.0 1.0 1.0 NA 1.0 1.0
 30 to 49 0.91(0.85–0.98)* 0.92(0.85–0.98)* 0.98(0.91–1.05)   0.93(0.86–0.99)* 0.92(0.86–0.98)*
 Above 50 0.88(0.81–0.95)** 0.85(0.78–0.92)*** 0.92(0.85–1.00)   0.94(0.86–1.02) 0.91(0.84–0.98)*
Mother education
 No education 1.0 1.0 1.0 NA 1.0  
 Primary 0.92(0.86–0.97)** 0.96(0.91–1.03) 0.94(0.88–0.99)*   0.89(0.84–0.95)*** 0.99(0.93–1.05)
 Secondary 0.69(0.63–0.75)*** 0.86(0.77–0.96)** 0.68(0.61–0.76)***   0.59(0.52–0.69)*** 0.85(0.73–0.98)*
 Higher 0.26(0.14–0.49)*** 0.43(0.23–0.82)* 0.45(0.19–1.07)   0.20(0.11–0.39)*** 0.40(0.21–0.76)**
Mothers marriage
 Single 1.0 1.0 1.0 NA 1.0 1.0
 Married 0.95(0.84–1.07) 0.84(0.74–0.96)** 1.06(0.92–1.22)   0.91(0.79–1.05) 0.85(0.74–0.96)*
 Separated 1.04(0.90–1.20) 0.90(0.78–1.04) 1.09(0.93–1.29)   1.06(0.90–1.24) 0.92(0.79–1.07)
Wealth status
 Poorest 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
 Poorer 1.01(0.93–1.08) 0.99(0.92–1.06) 0.92(0.85–0.98)* 0.94(0.87–1.00) 0.96(0.89–1.03) 0.96(0.89–1.03)
 Middle 1.01(0.94–1.09) 1.02(0.95–1.11) 0.88(0.83–0.95)** 0.93(0.86–0.99)* 0.89(0.83–0.96)** 0.92(0.86–0.99)*
 Richer 0.79(0.73–0.86)*** 0.86(0.79–0.94)** 0.78(0.72–0.84)*** 0.87(0.78–0.95)** 0.79(0.73–0.86)*** 0.85(0.78–0.92)***
Richest 0.68(0.53–0.65)*** 0.74(0.64–0.84)*** 0.62(0.56–0.68)*** 0.79(0.69–0.91)** 0.44(0.39–0.49)*** 0.53(0.46–0.61)***
Age of child (months)
  < 6 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
 6 to 23 1.51(1.34–1.71)*** 1.48(1.31–1.67)*** 1.65(1.46–1.88)*** 1.64(1.44–1.86)*** 4.99(3.96–6.28)*** 4.61(3.66–5.80)***
 24–35 1.89(1.67–2.13)*** 1.86(1.64–2.11)*** 1.99(1.75–2.26)*** 1.98(1.74–2.25)*** 5.14(4.07–6.49)*** 4.97(3.92–6.27)***
  > 35 1.59(1.41–1.79)*** 1.59(1.40–1.81)*** 1.61(1.42–1.82)*** 1.57(1.37–1.80)*** 5.13(4.07–6.46)*** 4.99(3.96–6.27)***
Gender of children
 Male 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
 Female 0.88(0.83–0.93)*** 0.87(0.83–0.92)*** 0.85(0.81–0.89)*** 0.84(0.80–0.88)*** 0.94(0.89–0.99)* 0.95(0.89–0.99)*
Birth weight
 Above 2500 g 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
 Below 2500 g 1.64(1.48–1.81)*** 1.65(1.48–1.82)*** 1.47(1.31–1.66)*** 1.51(1.34–1.69)*** 1.65(1.47–1.85)*** 1.59(1.42–1.79)***
Mother’s employment
 Not working 1.0 NA 1.0 NA 1.0 NA
 Last year 0.99(0.86–1.15)   0.88(0..70–1.09)   1.19(1.01–1.41)*  
 Working currently 1.10(1.02–1.18)*   1.08(1.00–1.17)*   1.32(1.21–1.46)***  
Place of delivery
 Health facility 1.0 NA 1.0 NA 1.0 1.0
 At home 1.19(1.13–1.26)***   1.18(1.13–1.25)***   1.27(1.20–1.35)*** 1.16(1.06–1.27)***
 Other places 1.00(0.79–1.25)   1.24(1.00–1.53)*   0.68(0.12–3.76) 0.69(0.16–3.03)
Presence of diarrhea
 No 1.0 NA 1.0 NA 1.0 1.0
 Yes 1.05(0.97–1.14)   1.06(0.98–1.14)   1.21(1.13–1.29)*** 1.12(1.04–1.20)**
Symptoms of fever
 No 1.0 1.0 1.0 NA 1.0 1.0
 Yes 1.10(1.03–1.18)** 1.07(1.00–1.14)* 1.03(0.97–1.09)   1.17(1.11–1.24)*** 1.08(1.02–1.15)**
Starting of breastfeeding
 Within an hour 1.0 NA 1.0 NA 1.0 NA
 After an hour 1.0(0.94–1.07)   1.05(0.98–1.13)   1.11(1.04–1.17)**  
 After one day 1.10(1.03–1.17)**   1.15(1.08–1.23)***   1.12(1.02–1.24)*  
  1. **P < .01, *P < .05, ***P < 0.001; 1.0 = Reference category, CI = Confidence interval; PR Prevalence ratio, NA = Not significant in the multivariate model