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Table 5 Odds ratio and 95% CI of socio-demographic correlates of stunting and underweight among underfive children in India 2015–16

From: Malnutrition and poverty in India: does the use of public distribution system matter?

Sociodemographic background characteristics Stunting Underweight
Classified Poor
 Non Poor®   
 Real Poor 1.42***(1.38,1.46) 1.46***(1.42,1.50)
 Excluded Poor 1.43***(1.39,1.47) 1.37***(1.33,1.4)
 Privileged Non-Poor 1.15***(1.12,1.18) 1.15***(1.12,1.18)
Age of the child (in months)
  < 12®   
 12—25 2.73***(2.65,2.81) 1.40***(1.36,1.45)
  > 25 2.66***(2.59,2.73) 1.64***(1.60,1.69)
Sex of the child
 Male®   
 Female 0.91***(0.89,0.92) 0.93***(0.92,0.95)
Birth Order
 1®   
 2—3 1.10***(1.08,1.12) 1.10***(1.08,1.13)
 4+ 1.31***(1.27,1.35) 1.23***(1.19,1.26)
Size at Birth
 Average and above®   
 Small 0.78***(0.74,0.83) 0.75***(0.71,0.80)
 Very small 0.60***(0.57,0.64) 0.52***(0.49,0.55)
Mother’s Education
 No Education®   
 Primary 0.88***(0.85,0.90) 0.86***(0.84,0.89)
 Secondary 0.68***(0.66,0.70) 0.69***(0.67,0.70)
 Higher 0.47***(0.45,0.48) 0.47***(0.45,0.49)
Place of Residence
 Urban®   
 Rural 1.08***(1.06,1.11) 0.99 (0.97,1.02)
Caste
 Scheduled Caste®   
 Scheduled Tribe 0.87***(0.85,0.90) 0.95***(0.92,0.98)
 OBC 0.90***(0.88,0.92) 0.93***(0.91,0.95)
 Other 0.72***(0.70,0.74) 0.73***(0.71,0.76)
Religion
 Hindu®   
 Muslim 1.11***(1.08,1.14) 0.98 (0.95,1.01)
 Other 0.82***(0.79,0.85) 0.54***(0.52,0.56)
BMI of Mother
 Underweight®   
 Normal 0.79***(0.78,0.81) 0.60***(0.59,0.61)
 Overweight 0.59***(0.57,0.61) 0.38***(0.37,0.39)
Number of children in Household
 1®   
 2 1.15***(1.13,1.18) 1.05***(1.03,1.07)
 3 or more 1.23***(1.20,1.27) 1.05***(1.02,1.09)
  1. ® Reference category.
  2. *** p < 0.01, ** p < 0.05, *p < 0.10