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Table 2 Examples of personalized recommendations given to the patients in Low-GI Nutrigenetic group in addition to base diet

From: A comparison of a ketogenic diet with a LowGI/nutrigenetic diet over 6 months for weight loss and 18-month follow-up

Personalized modifications to the standard guidelines based on DNA profile

Variation in ACE, PPARG, ADRB2 (Gln27Glu), TCF7L2, FABP2

Lower glycemic load (GL) diet, extra fiber, reduction of added sugars [3, 11, 25, 48]

Variation in LPL, FTO, APOA2, APOC3, ADRB2 (Arg16Gly), ADRB3, PPARG, TCF7L2

Restriction of saturated fats to no more than 16 g/day with concurrent increase in unsaturated fat consumption, such as olive oil [28]

Variation in GSTM1 and GSTT1

Ensure consumption of an adequate intake of cruciferous vegetables - 200 g five times per week [39]

Variation in GPX1

Consume foods rich in selenium such as Brazil nuts, fresh fish, meat, wheat germs, brown rice, oats, and onion. In case of low plasma selenium, supplementation of 200 mcg/day was recommended [38]

Variation in TNF and IL6

Increased consumption of omega-3 rich foods. Green tea, turmeric, ginger, rosemary, oregano were also recommended, along with supplementary omega 3 (1-2 g/day) [49]

Variation in MTHFR

Increase consumption of folate-rich foods (dark leafy greens, asparagus, bean, peas, lentils, avocado, okra). Supplementation with 400mcg folate, 3 mg vitamin B6, 5 mg vitamin B12, 2.5 mg vitamin B2, 12 mg zinc, and 250 mg of TMG/betaine [9]

Variation in CYP1A2 and EPHX1

Increase consumption of antioxidants, such as grapes, blueberries, sweet potatoes and orange vegetables. Decrease in caffeine consumption. Decrease consumption of grilled meat and fish to 1–2 servings per week. [10, 35]

Variation in SOD2 and CAT

Increase antioxidant consumption through diet [12].

Variation in LCT

Reduction of lactose, use lactose-free dairy. [44]

Variation in VDR

Keep caffeine below 2 cups coffee/day. Increase dairy component of diet (yoghurt, cheese and low-fat milk). If required add supplement containing 800 IU vitamin D and 1300 mg Calcium. [51, 52]

Variation in HLA-DQ

Check for symptoms of gluten intolerance – refer to medical doctor if necessary. [41]