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Table 4 Bi-variable analysis and cross-tabulation of the outcome variable versus the covariates in children of age 6–59 months using 2016 EDHS dataset

From: Modeling the predictors of stunting in Ethiopia: analysis of 2016 Ethiopian demographic health survey data (EDHS)

Variable Stunting   UOR 95%CI P-value
  No, freq(%) Yes, freq(%)    
Age of mother
 15–19 138(1.74) 102(1.29) ref ref  
 20–29 2404(30.4) 1529(19.33) 1.16 0.89,1.51 0.22
 30–39 1866(23.59) 1199(15.16) 1.15 0.88,1.5 0.33
 40–49 400(5.06) 271(3.43) 1.09 0.80,1.47 0.91
Overall p-value = 0.643
Maternal height
  ≥ 150 cm 4461(56.4) 2672(33.78) ref ref ref
  < 150 cm 347(4.39) 429(5.42) 2.06 1.77–2.39 < 0.0001
Anemia level of the mother
 Severe 78(1.01) 48(0.62) 1.008 0.7,1.45 0.96
 Moderate 428(5.56) 302(3.92) 1.15 0.98,1.35 0.07
 Mild 1036(13.46) 759(9.86) 1.2 1.07,1.33 0.0011
 Not anemic 3133(40.7) 1913(24.85) ref ref ref
Anemia level of child
 Severe 135(1.77) 165(2.17) 2.2 1.73,2.79 < 0.0001
 Moderate 1425(18.7) 1030(13.52) 1.3 1.16,1.45 < 0.0001
 Mild 1075(14.11) 737(9.67) 1.23 1.09,1.39 0.0006
 Non-anemic 1962(25.75) 1090(14.31) ref ref ref
Overall P-value = 0.0069
Child size
 Large 1608(20.51) 811(10.34) ref ref  
 Average 2059(26.26) 1294(16.51) 1.24 1.11,1.39 < 0.0001
 Small 1099(14.02) 969(12.36) 1.74 1.54,1.97 < 0.0001
Paternal education
 No education 1993(26.95) 1599(21.63) 2.87 2.33,3.55 < 0.0001
 Primary 1537(20.79) 947(12.81) 2.2 1.78,2.74 < 0.0001
 Secondary 525(7.10) 229(3.10) 1.56 1.21,2.01 0.0005
 Tertiary 441(5.96) 123(1.66) ref ref  
Maternal education
 No education 2899(36.65) 2193(27.73) 4.22 3.03,5.86 < 0.0001
 Primary 1281(16.26) 740(9.36) 3.22 2.3,4.5 < 0.0001
 Secondary 388(4.91) 125(1.58) 1.79 1.22,2.63 0.0026
 Tertiary 240(3.03) 43(0.54) ref ref  
Age child
 6 to 24 months 2017(25.5) 902(11.4) ref ref  
  ≥ 24 to 59 2791(35.29) 2199(27.8) 1.76 1.6,1.94 < 0.0001
Wealth index
 Poor 2321(29.35) 1896(23.97) 1.98 1.78,2.2 < 0.0001
 Average 695(8.79) 466(5.890 1.62 1.4,1.88 < 0.0001
 Rich 1792(22.66) 739(9.34) ref ref  
Sex of child
 Male 2400(30.35) 1654(20.91) 1.14 1.04,1.25 0.003
 Female 2408(30.45) 1,447,918.3) ref ref  
Residence
 Urban 1076(13.6) 376(4.75) ref ref  
 Rural 3732(47.19) 2725(34.45) 2.09 1.84,2.37 < 0.0001
BMI of mother
  < 18.5 1094(14) 827(10.58) 1.13 1.02,1.26 0.018
  ≥ 18.5–24.9 3107(39.75) 2067(26.44) ref ref  
  ≥ 25 556(7.11) 166(2.12) 0.44 0.37,0.53 < 0.0001
Weight child
  < 9.1 1117(14.12) 830(10.51) 3.81 3.28,4.42  
  ≥ 9.1–11.2 956(12.09) 1008(12.74) 5.4 4.66,6.27  
  ≥ 11.2–13.3 1068(13.5) 937(11.85) 4.5 3.88,5.21  
  > 13.3 1667(21.08) 325(4.11) ref ref  
Continuous variables B-coefficient CI P-value   
Age of mother 1.003 0.997,1.01 0.325   
Weight of child 0.983 0.981, 0.985 0.0001   
Height of mother 0.995 0.994,0.995 < 0.0001   
  1. UOR unadjusted odds ratio, Freq frequency, CI confidence interval