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Table 1 Demographic profile of SAGE GHA W3 survey participants and subsample with valid urine data (urine data considered valid if volume ≥ 300 ml)

From: Salt and potassium intake among adult Ghanaians: WHO-SAGE Ghana Wave 3

  Main SAGE cohort (n = 3053) Salt sub study sample (n = 839) P-value
Age
 Years 60 (20) 60 (19) 0.3294
 18–49 years, n (%) 717 (23.5) 174 (20.7) 0.0100
 50 plus years, n (%) 2336 (76.5) 665 (79.3) 0.4494
Sex, n (%)    0.001
 Men 1183 (38.8) 371 (32.3)  
 Women 1870 (61.2) 568 (67.7)  
Ethnicity, n (%)    < 0.0001
 Akan 1544 (50.6) 497 (59.2)  
 Ewe 216 (7.1) 58 (6.9)  
 Ga-Adangbe 224 (7.3) 45 (5.4)  
 Gruma 30 (1.0) 6 (0.7)  
 Grusi 76 (2.5) 12 (1.4)  
 Guan 38 (1.2) 16 (1.9)  
 Mande-Busanga 63 (2.1) 3 (0.4)  
 Mole-Dagbon 174 (5.7) 24 (2.9)  
 Other 612 (20.0) 174 (20.7)  
Residence, n (%)    < 0.0001
 Urban 1301 (42.6) 457 (54.5)  
 Rural 1752 (57.4) 382 (45.5)  
Marital status, n (%)    0.002
 Never married 208 (6.8) 39 (4.6)  
 Married/cohabiting 1760 (57.7) 470 (56.0)  
 Separate/divorced 369 (12.1) 87 (10.4)  
 Widowed 715 (23.4) 243 (29.0)  
Never been to school, n (%) 1119 (36.7) 240 (28.6) < 0.0001
Education (years) 10 (5) 10 (5) 0.0139
BMI kg/m2 24.2 (6.8) 25.4 (7.4) < 0.01
Waist to height ratio 0.54 (0.11) 0.56 (0.13) < 0.01
Never used alcohol, n (%) 1865 (61.3) 483 (57.6) 0.052
Never used tobacco, n (%) 2739 (90.0) 759 (90.5) 0.68
Systolic BP (mm Hg) 124 (26.5) 126.5 (29) < 0.01
Diastolic BP (mm Hg) 76 (17) 76.5 (17) 0.83
Mean Arterial Pressure (Map) mmHG 92.5 (19.2) 93.2 (20.7) 0.24
Hypertension, n(%) 1132 (37.6) 370 (44.3) < 0.01
Diabetes, n(%) 157 (5.2) 67 (8.0) 0.01
Portions of fruit, n(%)    0.05
Met WHO’s recommendation of at least 5 servings of friuts and vegetables 1591 (57.4) 442 (54.5) 0.14
Frequently add salt to food at table, n(%) 642 (21.1) 107 (12.7) < 0.01
Frequently add salt to food during cooking, n(%) 2527 (83.0) 672 (80.1) 0.05
Believe they consume too much salt, n(%) 265 (8.8) 92 (11.0) 0.05
Believe a high salt diet is bad for health, n(%) 2247 (75.9) 651 (80.0) 0.02
Regularly control of salt intake, n(%) 1243 (42.1) 394 (48.5) < 0.01
  1. Nested sub sample: all respondent with CAPI data and valid urine, sex and age recorded. Some variables may contain missing data. Data are presented as median (IRQ) unless otherwise indicated. Hypertensive by measured BP ≥ 140 and/or 90 mmHg or previous diagnosis (self-reported). Ethnicity, marital status, education, alcohol/tobacco use and diabetes prevalence by self-report. Mann-Whitney Test used to compare medians, Pearson Chi-Square test and Fisher’s Exact Test used to compare proportional data