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Table 2 Nested cohort by salt excretion levels, low, medium and high salt groups, WHO – SAGE Ghana Wave 3 (2019)

From: Salt and potassium intake among adult Ghanaians: WHO-SAGE Ghana Wave 3

Characteristics Low salt
< 5 g/d
(n = 186)
Medium salt
5-9 g/d
(n = 269)
High salt
> 9 g/d
(n = 378)
p value
Age yrs 64 (20) 60 (17) 58 (18) <  0.01
Sex male, n (%) n = 185
73 (39.5)
n = 269
90 (33.5)
n = 378
105 (27.8)
0.02
Ethnicity n (%) n = 184 n = 268 n = 376 0.03
 Akan 122 (66.3) 168 (62.7) 203 (54.0)  
 Ga 7 (3.8) 11 (4.1) 27 (7.2)  
 Ewe 14 (7.6) 18 (6.7) 24 (6.4)  
 Mole-dagbon 5 (2.7) 6 (2.2) 13 (3.5)  
 Mole-busanga 1 (0.5) 0 (0.0) 2 (0.5)  
 Grusi 3 (1.6) 3 (1.1) 6 (1.6)  
 Guan 0 (0.0%) 11 (4.1%) 5 (1.3)  
 Gruma 1 (0.5) 3 (1.1) 2 (0.5)  
 Other 31 (16.8) 48 (17.9) 94 (25.0)  
Urban n (%) n = 185
102 (55.1)
n = 269
149 (55.4)
n = 378
200 (52.9)
0.79
Education (years) n = 118
10 (5)
n = 179
10 (3)
n = 250
10 (5)
0.07
BMI, kg/m2 n = 179
23.8 (6.5)a
n = 258
25.5 (7.8)
n = 356
26.2 (7.5)a
< 0.01
Salt intake g/d n = 186
3.6 (1.5)ab
n = 269
6.7 (2.0)ac
n = 371
13.4 (8.9)bc
<  0.01
K intake, mmol/d n = 186
32.0 (25.8)ab
n = 269
54.9 (43.8)ac
n = 378
112.3 (115.8)bc
<  0.01
Na: K n = 186
1.7 (1.2)ab
n = 269
2.0 (1.4)ac
n = 378
2.3 (1.9)bc
<  0.01
Urinary iodine excretion, mmol/day n = 150
166.2 (168.5)b
n = 211
148.2 (131.4)a
n = 292
117.6 (132.8)ab
<  0.01
Systolic BP, mmHg n = 186
129 (31.0)
n = 266
126 (31.0)
n = 375
126.5 (29.0)
0.73
Diastolic BP, mmHg n = 188
76 (18.0)
n = 270
75.5 (17)
n = 379
77.5 (117.0)
0.68
Pulse pressure, mmHg n = 186
50.5 (16.7)
n = 266
49.5 (17.6)
n = 375
49.5 (16)
0.20
Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP), mmHg n = 185
94.2 (21.3)
n = 266
110 (41.0)
n = 376
93.5 (19.4)
0.85
Hypertension Prevalence, n (%) n = 186
94 (50.5)
n = 268
110 (41.0)
n = 378
166 (44.3)
0.13
Hypertension awareness, n (% of hypertension prevalence) n = 94
51 (54.8)
n = 110
62 (55.4)
n = 166
108 (65.1)
0.16
Hypertension medication, current use n (% of hypertension awareness) n = 51
31 (60.8)
n = 62
47 (75.8)
n = 108
74 (68.5)
0.23
Hypertension control, n (% of Hypertension medication) n = 31
16 (51.6)
n = 47
22 (46.8)
n = 74
39 (52.7)
0.82
Stroke, n (%) n = 185
6 (3.2)
n = 269
6 (2.2)
n = 378
6 (1.6)
0.44
Diabetes, n (%) n = 185
10 (5.4)
n = 269
24 (8.9)
n = 378
32 (8.5)
0.37
Tobacco use, n (%) n = 182
25 (13.7)
n = 269
25 (9.3)
n = 378
29 (7.7)
0.72
Alcohol use, n (%) n = 182
80 (44.0)
n = 269
115 (42.8)
n = 378
156 (41.3)
0.82
Fruits and Veg., met recommendation n (%) n = 186
97 (52.2)
n = 269
152 (56.5)
n = 378
193 (51.1)
0.38
Frequently adds salt to food at the table, n (%) n = 158
24 (13)
n = 269
35 (13)
n = 279
(12.4)
0.65
Frequently adds salt to cooking at home, n (%) n = 185
149 (80.5)
n = 296
225 (83.6)
n = 378
291 (77)
0.05
Believe that they are eating just the right amount of salt n (%) n = 185
105 (56.8)
n = 267
169 (63.3)
n = 376
228 (60.6)
0.18
Believe a high salt diet can cause a serious health problem, n (%) n = 180
144 (80.0)
n = 259
207 (79.9)
n = 368
296 (80.4)
0.99
Does something to control salt consumption, n (%) n = 183
82 (44.8)
n = 260
126 (48.5)
n = 363
182 (50.1)
0.50
  1. Data are presented as median (IQR, interquartile range) unless otherwise stated. BMI, body; hypertension prevalence, BP ≥ 140/90 or previous diagnosis; Current use of hypertension medication represents current use in the last 2 weeks; BMI, body mass index; tobacco use by self-report; alcohol use by self-report; met fruits and vegetable recommendation indicates consumed five or more servings of fruits and vegetables a day; salt behaviour responses, frequently indicates ‘always’ and ‘often’; continuous variables compared using Independent Kruskal-Wallis Test and categorical variables compared using Pearson Chi-Square Test and Fisher’s Exact Test. a, b, c; sig at p < 0.05