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Table 1 Themes and data sources

From: Interpersonal determinants of eating behaviours in Dutch older adults living independently: a qualitative study

Theme Related codes from interviews Related data from observations
1) Behaviours are shaped by someone’s context Habits / traditions
Food motives:
- Habit / routine / used to (from the past)
- Going along with the social context / someone else chooses
Not directly observed. However, during the collective eating activities, there was limited choice in what to eat, and participants ate whatever was served (going along with the context).
2) Living alone influences (determinants of) eating behaviour via multiple ways Food motives:
- Price / budget
- Easy / quick / saving energy (dishes)
- Living alone / feeling alone
Social context of a meal
Loneliness
From conversations during collective eating activities:
- The influence of living alone on life.
- Sociability as a reason to attend the collective eating activity.
3) There is a salient norm that people do not interfere with others’ eating behaviour First association / interest eating and drinking
Food motives:
- Because someone else tells me (not) to
Paying attention to the behaviour of others / talking with other about eating and drinking
(Not) comparing own behaviour with others
From conversations during collective eating activities:
- Some older adults did seem to pay attention to others’ eating behaviour during the activity.
- The few conversations about eating were superficial, mostly about the foods on the table.
- Seeing or hearing about certain foods could raise someone’s interest to try it themselves (e.g. to try a meal service that someone else was talking about).
4) Older adults make limited use of social support (both formal and informal) for grocery shopping and cooking, except for organised eating activities in the neighbourhood Informal support with meal preparation
Formal support with meal preparation
Grocery shopping
Observed while visiting the collective eating activities and the occasions of grocery shopping:
- Multiple facilities nearby
- Many older adults make use of it
From conversations at the weekly market:
- The weekly market was not only visited for grocery shopping, also to have a walk outside.