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Table 2 Evaluation of quality parameters (standard deviation, percentage of flags, skewness, excess kurtosis, normality) for anthropometric indices among children 6–59 months, overall and by age group

From: Comparison of anthropometric data quality in children aged 6-23 and 24-59 months: lessons from population-representative surveys from humanitarian settings

Indicator   SD
(mean)
% Flag
(mean)
Skewness
(mean)
% Skewed
(+/−  0.5 cutoffs)
% Skewed negative % Skewed positive Kurtosis (mean) % Kurtosis
(+/−  1 cutoffs)
% excess kurtosis negative % excess kurtosis positive % Non-Normal (Shapiro)
WHZ Children 6-59 m 1.05 0.36 − 0.09 1.9% 1.4% 0.5% 0.30 3.0% 0.0% 3.0% 45.7%
Children 6–23 m 1.11 0.49 −0.05 3.1% 1.8% 1.3% 0.17 4.1% 0.0% 4.1% 16.0%
Children 24–59 m 1.07 0.28 −0.07 3.4% 2.3% 1.1% 0.36 9.6% 0.0% 9.6% 38.3%
Differencea 0.10*** 0.21*** 0.01 −0.3% − 0.18*** −5.5%*** −22.3%***
Correlationb 0.56*** 0.40*** 0.30*** 0.18***
% youngerc better 14.3% 21.9 51.0% 54.8%
WAZ Children 6–59 m 1.04 0.19 −0.07 1.4% 1.3% 0.1% 0.27 3.7% 0.0% 3.7% 42.4%
Children 6–23 m 1.13 0.33 −0.03 3.8% 2.0% 1.8% 0.13 3.9% 0.0% 3.9% 13.6%
Children 24–59 m 0.98 0.09 −0.12 4.4% 3.8% 0.6% 0.28 9.0% 0.0% 9.0% 35.8%
Differencea 0.15*** 0.24*** 0.09*** −0.6% − 0.15*** −5.0%*** −22.2%***
Correlationb 0.59*** 0.23*** 0.15*** 0.17***
% youngerc better 5.5% 10.4% 52.8% 50.6%
HAZ Children 6–59 m 1.22 1.00 0.03 1.1% 0.4% 0.7% 0.11 2.5% 0.0% 2.5% 38.9%
Children 6–23 m 1.26 1.52 0.03 3.7% 1.1% 2.6% 0.05 1.4% 0.0% 1.4% 17.3%
Children 24–59 m 1.18 0.67 0.01 3.7% 2.0% 1.7% 0.14 3.9% 0.0% 3.9% 33.9%
Differencea 0.08*** 0.86*** 0.02* 0.0% −0.10*** −2.5%*** −16.6%***
Correlationb 0.69*** 0.75*** 0.30*** 0.31***
% youngerc better 25.6% 14.5% 47.9% 51.8%
MUACZ Children 6–59 m 0.96 0.13 −0.11 3.6% 3.3% 0.3% 0.32 28.2% 0.3% 27.9% 41.0%
Children 6–23 m 1.02 0.17 −0.13 9.0% 8.6% 0.3% 0.31 32.3% 3.4% 28.9% 26.5%
Children 24–59 m 0.91 0.10 −0.11 5.8% 5.4% 0.4% 0.26 26.1% 1.6% 24.5% 32.2%
Differencea 0.10*** 0.08*** −0.03* 3.1%* 0.05* 6.3%* −5.7%*
Correlationb 0.58*** 0.19*** 0.25*** 0.06
% youngerc better 10.4% 15.5% 42.0% 43.0%
BMIZ Children 6–59 m 1.08 1.56 −0.09 1.3% 0.8% 0.5% 0.29 26.4% 0.4% 26.0% 43.3%
Children 6–23 m 1.14 2.14 −0.08 3.8% 3.0% 0.8% 0.16 23.7% 4.6% 19.1% 15.7%
Children 24–59 m 1.04 1.24 −0.05 3.0% 1.5% 1.5% 0.35 35.1% 0.8% 34.3% 34.3%
Differencea 0.10*** 0.89*** −0.03** 0.8% −0.19*** −11.4%*** −18.5%***
Correlationb 0.63*** 0.82*** 0.30*** 0.18***
% youngerc better 16.4% 25.8% 51.8% 56.2%
  1. WHZ Weight-for-height z-zcore, WAZ Weight-for-age z-score, HAZ Height-for-age z-score, MUACZ Mid-upper arm circumference-for-age z-score, BMIZ BMI-for-age z-score, SD Standard deviation
  2. P-values were calculated using parametric tests
  3. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001
  4. a Mean difference between 6–23 and 24–59 months age groups
  5. b Correlation between 6–23 and 24–59 age groups
  6. cPercentage of surveys where absolute values for age group 6–23 months were lower than absolute values for age group 24–59 months