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Table 1 Distribution of demographic characteristics among pregnant women with GDM and without GDM (N = 1777)

From: Food habits in pregnancy and its association with gestational diabetes mellitus: results from a prospective cohort study in public hospitals of urban India

Characteristics of the cohort Categories GDM status Total P-value
Yes (n = 313) No (n = 1464) N (%)
Age (years) Mean ± SD 25.9 ± 4.4 24.0 ± 4.0 24.3 ± 4.1 < 0.001*
Gestational age at baseline (weeks) Mean ± SD 23.9 ± 5.4 23.8 ± 5.4 23.8 ± 5.3 0.95
Gestational age at the time of OGTT weeks) Mean ± SD 28.1 ± 2.6 28.1 ± 2.9 28.1 ± 2.9 0.90
Religion Hinduism 142(45.4) 677(46.2) 819 (46.0) 0.95
Christianity 12(3.6) 53(3.7) 65 (3.7)
Islam 159(50.8) 734(50.1) 893 (50.3)
Participant Education Illiterate 12(3.8) 43(2.9) 55(3.1) 0.06
Primary School 21(6.7) 78(5.3) 99(5.6)
Middle School 43(13.7) 267(18.2) 310(17.4)
High School 134(42.8) 641(43.8) 775(43.6)
PUC or Diplomaa 64(20.4) 309(21.1) 373(21.0)
Graduate and above 39(12.5) 126(8.6) 165(9.2)
Husband’s Education Illiterate 28(8.9) 139(9.5) 167(9.4) 0.41
Primary School 27(8.6) 150(10.2) 177(10.0)
Middle School 57(18.2) 281(19.2) 338(19.0)
High School 124(39.6) 559(38.2) 683(38.4)
PUC or Diplomaa 59(18.8) 214(14.6) 273(15.4)
Graduate and above 18(5.8) 115(7.9) 133(7.5)
Do not know 0(0.0) 6(0.4) 6(0.3)
Participant’s Occupationb Unemployed 283(90.4) 1361(93.0) 1644(92.5) 0.10
Unskilled 15(4.8) 70(4.8) 85(4.8)
Semi-skilled/ Skilled 15(4.8) 33(2.3) 48(2.7)
Husband’s Occupationb Unemployed 1(0.3) 4(0.3) 5(0.3) 0.30
Unskilled 155(49.5) 776(53.0) 931(52.4)
Semi-skilled 88(28.1) 405(27.7) 488(27.5)
Skilled 60(19.2) 223(15.2) 283(15.9)
Clerical or Professional 14(4.5) 56(3.8) 70(4.0)
Socioeconomic class Lower 177(56.5) 937(64.0) 1114 (62.7) 0.01*
Middle 136(43.5) 527(36.0) 663 (37.3)
Gravida One 105(33.5) 588(40.2) 693(39.0) 0.10
Two 129(41.2) 546(37.3) 675(38.0)
Three or more 79(25.2) 330(22.5) 409(23.0)
Parity Nulliparous 133(42.5) 666(45.5) 799 (45.0) 0.62
Primiparous 143(45.7) 637(43.5) 780(43.9)
Multiparous 37(11.8) 161(11.0) 198(11.1)
History of Abortion No history 230(73.5) 1154(78.8) 1384(77.9) 0.07
Once 68(21.7) 252(17.2) 320(18.0)
≥ twice 15(4.8) 58(4.0) 73(4.1)
Anemia Present 127(40.6) 645(44.1) 772(43.5) 0.24
Absent 186(59.4) 815(55.7) 1001(56.3)
Family history of Diabetes Mellitus Absent 197(62.9) 1134(77.5) 1331(75.0) < 0.001*
One parent 92(29.4) 286(19.5) 378(21.3)
Two parents 24(7.7) 40(2.7) 64(3.6)
Metabolic Equivalent of Task (MET) Low 8(2.6) 35(2.4) 43(2.4) 0.8
Moderate 305(97.4) 1429(97.6) 1734(97.6)
Sum of skin fold thickness (mm) Mean ± SD 18.4 ± 4.7 15.3 ± 4.6 15.9 ± 4.8 < 0.001*
Body mass index (BMI) Mean ± SD 27.3 ± 5.2 24.4 ± 4.3 24.9 ± 4.6 < 0.001*
  1. * Statistically significant at 5% level of significance
  2. aPUC Pre-university certification
  3. bUnskilled: laborer, construction laborer, helper, attender; peon, cleaner, sweeper
  4. Semi-Skilled: Gatekeeper/Security, Asst. Operator, Asst. electrician, waiter
  5. Skilled: Tailor, carpenter, driver, plumber, electrician