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Table 2 Univariate analysis of dietary habits with GDM status of pregnant women (N = 1777)

From: Food habits in pregnancy and its association with gestational diabetes mellitus: results from a prospective cohort study in public hospitals of urban India

Dietary habit Categories GDM status Total P-value
Yes (n = 313) No (n = 1464) n(%)
Red meat consumption Never 73(23.2) 420(28.7) 493(27.7) 0.02*
< 1 per month 13(4.1) 27(1.8) 40(2.3)
1–3 times /month 53(17.2) 190(12.9) 243(13.7)
1–3 times/week 153(48.7) 745(50.8) 898(50.5)
> 3 times / week 10(3.2) 36(2.4) 46(2.6)
Daily 11(3.5) 46(3.1) 57(3.2)
Fried food Never 105(33.8) 470 (32.1) 575(32.4) 0.96
< 1 per week 93(29.6) 448(30.6) 541(30.4)
1–3 times a week 101(32.2) 470(32.1) 571(32.1)
4 to 6 times a week 5(1.6) 25(1.7) 30(1.7)
Daily 9(2.9) 51(3.4) 60(3.4)
Eating out Never 178(57.0) 821(56.0) 999(56.2) 0.96
< 1 per week 87(27.7) 428(29.2) 515(29.0)
1–3 times a week 46(14.6) 205(14.0) 251(14.1)
4 to 6 times a week 1(0.3) 7(0.4) 8(0.5)
Daily 1(0.3) 3(0.2) 4(0.2)
Fruits Never 5(1.6) 38(2.5) 43(2.4) 0.22
<  1 serving /day 112(35.7) 476(32.5) 588(33.1)
2–4 servings / day 167(53.5) 757(51.7) 924(52.0)
5–6 servings / day 16(5.1) 92(6.2) 108(6.1)
>  6 servings / day 13(4.1) 101(6.8) 114(6.4)
Vegetables Never 7(2.2) 33(2.2) 40(2.3) 0.30
<  1 serving /day 90(28.7) 444(30.3) 534(30.1)
2–4 servings / day 186(59.6) 794(54.2) 980(55.1)
5–6 servings /day 17(5.4) 93(6.3) 110(6.2)
> 6 serving /day 13(4.1) 100(6.8) 113(6.4)
Polished Rice No 29(9.2) 109(7.4) 138(7.8) 0.28
Yes 284(90.8) 1355(92.5) 1639(92.2)
Palm oil for cooking Sunflower 267(85.3%) 1186(81%) 1453(81.8%) 0.08
Palm 25(8%) 183(12.5%) 208(11.7%)
Others a 21(6.7%) 95(6.5%) 116(6.5%)
Coffee Never 224(71.3) 997(68.1) 1221(68.7) 0.47
1–2 cups a day 86(27.70) 453(30.9) 539(30.3)
> 2 cups a day 3(1.0) 14(1.0) 17(1.0)
Tea Never 156(50.0) 760(51.9) 916(51.5) 0.80
1–2 cups a day 145(46.2) 651(44.4) 796(44.8)
> 2 cups a day 12(3.8) 53(3.6) 65(3.7)
Dairy Never 51(16.6) 283(19.3) 334(18.8) 0.51
< 1 per month 5(1.6) 18(1.2) 23(1.3)
1–3 times /month 0(0) 4(0) 4(0.2)
1–3 times/week 48(15.3) 181(12) 229(12.9)
> 3 times / week 2(0.6) 12(1) 14(0.8)
Daily 207(65.9) 966(66) 1173(66.0)
Eggs Never 74(23.9) 340(23) 414(23.3) 0.63
< 1 per month 7(2.2) 34(2) 41(2.3)
1–3 times /month 16(5.1) 61(4) 77(4.3)
1–3 times/week 163(51.9) 816(56) 979(55.1)
> 3 times / week 17(5.4) 53(4) 70(3.9)
Daily 36(11.5) 160(11) 196(11.0)
Chicken Never 56(17.8) 282(19) 338(19.0) 0.89
< 1 per month 6(1.9) 36(3) 42(2.4)
1–3 times /month 35(11.5) 142(10) 177(10.0)
1–3 times/week 198(63.1) 934(64) 1132(63.7)
> 3 times / week 18(5.7) 70(5) 88(5.0)
Fish Never 105(33.8) 570(39) 675(38.0) 0.34
< 1 per month 25(8.0) 94(6) 119(6.7)
1–3 times /month 80(25.5) 383(26) 463(26.1)
1–3 times/week 103(32.8) 417(28) 520(29.3)
  1. Row percentages are included
  2. * Statistically significant at 5% level of significance
  3. a others include, safflower oil, gingerly and rice bran oil