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Table 1 General Characteristics of the Participants Included in the Validation Study

From: Prevalence of fermented foods in the Dutch adult diet and validation of a food frequency questionnaire for estimating their intake in the NQplus cohort

  All (n = 809) Men (n = 425) Women (n = 384)
Age, years 53.1 ± 11.9 55.5 ± 11.0 50.4 ± 12.2
BMI, kg/m2 25.6 ± 3.8 26.1 ± 3.3 25.0 ± 4.2
BMI category
 < 25 kg/m2 387 (48) 165 (39) 222 (58)
 ≥ 25 kg/m2 421 (52) 259 (61) 162 (42)
Waist circumference, cm 90.7 ± 12.0 95.9 ± 10.3 84.8 ± 11.1
Education, n (%)
 Low 54 (7) 31 (7) 23 (6)
 Intermediate 223 (28) 109 (26) 114 (30)
 High 529 (65) 285 (67) 244 (64)
Smoking status, n (%)
 Never 364 (52) 170 (45) 194 (60)
 Former 270 (39) 163 (44) 107 (33)
 Current 65 (9) 41 (11) 24 (7)
Disease history, n (%)
 Cancer 44 (5) 17 (4) 27 (7)
 Diabetes 21 (3) 15 (4) 6 (2)
 Heart attack 16 (2) 12 (3) 4 (1)
 Hypertension 179 (22) 101 (24) 78 (20)
 High cholesterol 147 (18) 92 (22) 55 (14)
 Stroke 9 (1) 8 (2) 1 (0)
Diet during month preceding study, n (%)
 No 749 (93) 402 (94) 347 (91)
 Yes, always 28 (3) 8 (2) 20 (5)
 Yes, sometimes 31 (4) 15 (4) 16 (4)
Energy, kcal/day
 FFQ 2143.7 ± 504.8 2344.6 ± 509.7 1921.3 ± 394.5
 24-h Recalla 2129.2 ± 444.2 2315.2 ± 451.2 1923.4 ± 331.5
Protein, g/day
 FFQ 77.4 ± 17.7 83.4 ± 17.7 70.7 ± 15.1
 24-h Recalla 82.6 ± 18.4 89.8 ± 18.6 74.6 ± 14.5
Fat, g/day
 FFQ 85.4 ± 25.9 93.1 ± 27.1 76.9 ± 21.6
 24-h Recalla 81.6 ± 21.7 87.7 ± 22.8 74.7 ± 18.1
Carbohydrates, g/day
 FFQ 231.6 ± 61.1 251.7 ± 63.5 209.4 ± 49.6
 24-h Recalla 230.8 ± 58.0 249.1 ± 62.2 210.5 ± 44.8
Fibre, g/day
 FFQ 25.0 ± 6.8 26.1 ± 7.3 23.8 ± 5.9
 24-h Recalla 23.4 ± 6.8 24.5 ± 7.1 22.1 ± 6.2
  1. BMI Body mass index, FFQ Food frequency questionnaire, SD Standard deviation
  2. Values are presented as mean ± SD, unless otherwise specified. Missing values: BMI (n = 1), waist circumference (n = 1), education (n = 3), smoking status (n = 110), diet during last month (n = 1)
  3. aMean of multiple 24-h recalls