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Table 2 Mean Intake of Fermented and Non-Fermented Products Assessed by FFQ and 24-Hour Recalls

From: Prevalence of fermented foods in the Dutch adult diet and validation of a food frequency questionnaire for estimating their intake in the NQplus cohort

  FFQ 24-h Recall % Difference in group means (absolute difference)b
Meana SD Consumers Meana SD Consumers
Energy, kcal/day 2143.7 504.8 809 2129.2 444.2 809 0.7 (14.5)
Fermented beverages 605.5 (4.5%) 376.7 782 609.6 (5.5%) 371.8 774 −0.7 (−4.1)
 Coffee 457.6 (0.2%) 303.0 744 448.3 (0.8%) 287.9 742 2.1 (9.3)
 Beer 82.8 (1.7%) 163.0 436 85.7 (1.8%) 174.4 267 −3.3 (−2.9)
 Wine 65.0 (2.6%) 88.5 613 75.3 (2.8%) 100.0 507 −13.7 (−10.3)
Fermented cereals/grains 128.7 (15.0%) 52.1 806 142.6 (17.3%) 52.7 805 −9.7 (−13.9)
 Brown bread 23.9 (2.6%) 36.0 535 24.6 (2.9%) 33.1 464 −2.6 (−0.7)
 White bread 8.7 (1.1%) 15.6 531 18.6 (2.3%) 29.2 418 −53.4 (−9.9)
 Wholegrain bread 82.4 (9.5%) 52.4 760 79.4 (9.3%) 55.5 723 3.8 (3)
 Rye bread 3.3 (0.3%) 9.5 262 3.2 (0.3%) 11.7 103 5.1 (0.1)
 Other bread 8.6 (1.1%) 14.3 274 7.7 (1.0%) 15.5 271 10.8 (0.9)
 Pastries 1.8 (0.4%) 4.3 368 2.2 (0.4%) 6.7 117 −16.4 (−0.4)
Chocolate 5.6 (1.4%) 7.9 715 9.0 (2.2%) 10.8 575 −37.4 (−3.4)
Fermented dairy 170.6 (8.2%) 125.3 804 175.5 (8.5%) 129.8 795 −2.8 (−4.9)
 Cheeses 31.6 (4.9%) 25.2 785 31.7 (5.2%) 20.4 761 −0.3 (−0.1)
 Yoghurts 93.7 (2.5%) 90.5 704 81.8 (2.0%) 90.3 586 14.6 (11.9)
 Quark 3.0 (0.1%) 16.5 60 13.9 (0.5%) 34.2 207 −78.6 (−10.9)
 Buttermilk 42.3 (0.6%) 75.1 316 0.4 (0.01%) 7.3 3 10,224.4 (41.9)
Non-fermented dairy 152.7 (5.5%) 136.1 802 136.8 (5.5%) 132.4 752 11.7 (15.9)
 Butter 3.0 (1.0%) 7.7 309 3.0 (1.0%) 6.0 308 0.8 (0)
 Cream 3.0 (0.4%) 7.1 685 7.9 (0.7%) 13.4 444 −62.5 (−4.9)
 Ice cream 6.1 (0.7%) 9.1 520 7.8 (0.9%) 14.7 242 −22.0 (−1.7)
 Milk 140.7 (3.5%) 136.1 691 115.6 (2.6%) 131.9 591 21.7 (25.1)
Non-fermented soya 9.3 (0.3%) 34.3 683 11.1 (0.3%) 46.4 92 −15.9 (−1.8)
  1. FFQ Food frequency questionnaire, SD Standard deviation
  2. aMean energy-adjusted intakes for the entire validation sample. Values are in g/day (and as % average daily energy intake) (n = 809)
  3. bPercent difference is calculated using [(FFQ - Recall)/Recall] × 100% for each food or food group. For comparison, the absolute difference (FFQ – Recall) is also provided