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Table 3 Coronary Heart Diseasea Risk according to Beverage Consumption in Adults, The Jackson Heart Study

From: High fructose corn syrup, excess-free-fructose, and risk of coronary heart disease among African Americans– the Jackson Heart Study

  Cox Proportional Hazards Model 1, n=3621 Cox Proportional Hazards Model 2, n=3407 Cox Proportional Hazards Model 3, n=3609 P
for
Trend
IR
per
(1000)
Person
Time
Years
Cases
p/1000
p/year
Hazard
Ratio
95% CI p-value Hazard
Ratio
95% CI p-value Hazard
Ratio
95% CI p-value
  HR–adjusted for ever smoker, age, sex, and time varying covariates -BMI, total energy intake, hsCRPd, hypertension, physical activity type 2 diabetes HR– adjusted for ever smoker, age, sex, SES, & time varying covariates-BMI, total energy intake, hsCRPd, hypertension, physical activity, hbA1ce, fasting serum triglycerides, LDL-c HR- adjusted for ever smoker, age, sex, orange juice, and other 100% juicec intake, HEI2010, SES, & time varying covariates-BMI, total energy intake, hsCRPd, hypertension, physical activity, hbA1ce     
bAny combination of ndsoda/ FD (ttlEFF)
  < 2 times p/wk Reference -------    Reference -------    Reference ---------     10 4097 2.4
2–5 times p/wk 0.95 0.38–2.36 0.910 1.35 0.49–3.67 0.560 1.08 0.43–2.73 0.871   9 4338 2.1
once p/day 1.79 0.78–4.09 0.168 2.16 0.85–5.51 0.108 2.00 0.86–4.91 0.129   15 4493 3.3
  > 1 to < 3 X p/day 1.77 0.76–4.16 0.187 1.89 0.70–5.06 0.207 2.03 0.84–5.19 0.117   15 4865 3.1
 >=3 times p/day 2.60 1.07–6.31 0.035* 2.83 1.04–7.71 0.042* 2.98 1.15–7.76 0.025* 0.013* 17 4891 3.5
Non-diet soda        ±beverage adjustment 100% orange juice, and other 100% juices
  ≤ once /wk Reference -------    Reference -------    Reference ---------     21 8542 2.5
2–4 times /wk 1.78 0.77–4.08 0.174 1.63 0.66–4.00 0.289 1.70 0.73–3.96 0.215   8 2294 3.5
5–6 times /wk 2.03 1.02–4.08 0.045* 2.12 1.01–4.48 0.048* 2.08 1.03–4.20 0.041*   14 3347 4.2
  ≥ once /day 1.34 0.70–2.55 0.379 1.20 0.60–2.43 0.604 1.21 0.61–2.38 0.585 0.498 23 8501 2.7
Fruit Drinks        ±beverage adjustment 100% orange juice, and other 100% juices
  ≤ once /wk Reference -------    Reference -------    Reference ---------     18 5902 3.0
2–4 times /wk 0.44 0.19–1.02 0.056 0.54 0.22–1.28 0.162 0.46 0.18–1.14 0.094   8 6425 1.2
5–6 times p/wk 1.60 0.81–3.17 0.176 1.58 0.75–3.33 0.230 1.72 0.84–3.54 0.140   18 3917 4.6
  ≥ once /day 1.61 0.81–3.21 0.177 1.50 0.70–3.21 0.292 1.76 0.85–3.65 0.129 0.012* 22 6440 3.4
Orange Juice        ±beverage adjustment/ ttlEFF/ 100% non-citrus juices
  ≤ once /wk Reference -------    Reference -------    Reference ---------     15 5697 2.6
2–4 times /wk 1.20 0.60–2.40 0.602 1.22 0.57–2.59 0.612 1.21 0.60–2.45 0.588   18 6222 2.9
5–6 times /wk 0.76 0.33–1.78 0.529 0.92 0.37–2.25 0.850 0.78 0.32–1.88 0.578   9 3572 2.5
  ≥ once /day 1.28 0.66–2.50 0.468 1.27 0.61–2.66 0.526 1.42 0.71–2.88 0.324 0.602 24 7194 3.3
cOther 100% (non-citrus) Juices        ±beverage adjustment/ ttlEFF/ 100% orange juice
  ≤ once /wk Reference -------    Reference -------    Reference ---------     40 10,782 3.7
2–4 times /wk 0.43 0.18–1.02 0.056 0.48 0.20–1.15 0.098 0.42 0.18–1.02 0.054   6 4993 1.2
5–6 times /wk 0.89 0.45–1.74 0.732 0.60 0.27–1.34 0.213 0.96 0.48–1.94 0.910   12 2960 4.0
  ≥ once /day 0.55 0.25–1.21 0.136 0.47 0.20–1.10 0.080 0.45 0.20–1.02 0.055 0.247 8 3949 2.0
  1. HR hazard ratios (relative risks), their 95% confidence intervals and p values are shown. a Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) refers to the first incidence of CHD as self-reported during exams 2–3. b HR includes adjustment for any combination of HFCS sweetened soft drinks (ndSoda), and fruit drinks (FD)-beverages with fructose-to-glucose ratios that exceed 1:1. During the Jackson Heart Study –HFCS was the main sweetener in US soft drinks [41]. In HFCS sweetened soft drinks, independent labs have found that the fructose-to-glucose ratio (1.9:1 [35] and 1.5:1 [36]) exceeds the 1.2:1 ratio that is generally recognized as safe [37]. The fructose-to-glucose ratio in fruit drinks varies and likely lies between 1.5:1and 2:1, as many varieties are sweetened with apple juice-a 100% juice with a ≥ 2:1 fructose-to-glucose ratio [11], and HFCS. c Other 100% Juices includes 100% juices other than orange juice (a 100% juice with a 1:1 fructose-to-glucose ratio [11]), for example pineapple and grape juices (100% juices with a 1:1 fructose-to-glucose ratio [11]), and apple juice (a 100% juice with a ≥ 2:1 fructose-to-glucose ratio [11]). d hsCRP is a biomarker of inflammation. e hbA1C is a measure of glycated hemoglobin, an indicator of blood glucose concentration over the prior 3 months. * Asterisks indicate statistical significance. ±specifies which other beverages were included in model 3 analyses