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Table 1 Baseline Demographics, Participant Characteristics, and AHEI Baseline and Year 1 Scores by treatment arm

From: Diet quality, weight loss, and diabetes incidence in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP)

  All ILS Metformin Placebo p-value
N = 2914 N = 964 N = 977 N = 973  
Demographics
 Age (years) 50.8 ± 10.6 50.7 ± 11.1 51.3 ± 10.3 50.5 ± 10.3 0.249
 Female 1967 (67.5%) 657 (68.2%) 637 (65.2%) 673 (69.2%) 0.151
 Race/ethnicity      0.379
  % Caucasian 1614 (55.4%) 535 (55.5%) 548 (56.1%) 531 (54.6%)  
  % African American 564 (19.4%) 172 (17.8%) 200 (20.5%) 192 (19.7%)  
  % Hispanic 460 (15.8%) 157 (16.3%) 151 (15.5%) 152 (15.6%)  
  % American Indian 154 (5.3%) 50 (5.2%) 49 (5.0%) 55 (5.7%)  
  % Asian 122 (4.2%) 50 (5.2%) 29 (3.0%) 43 (4.4%)  
 Education (years) 14.8 ± 3.1 14.8 ± 3.1 14.9 ± 3.1 14.7 ± 3.2 0.579
 Current Smoker 181 (6.2%) 50 (5.2%) 61 (6.2%) 70 (7.2%) 0.187
 Family History of Diabetes 2018 (69.3%) 665 (69.1%) 674 (69.0%) 679 (69.9%) 0.899
 Hypertensiona 832 (28.6%) 272 (28.2%) 288 (29.5%) 272 (28.0%) 0.728
Characteristics
 BMI (kg/m2) 33.9 ± 6.6 33.8 ± 6.7 33.8 ± 6.6 34.2 ± 6.7 0.369
 Waist (cm) 105.1 ± 14.4 104.9 ± 14.7 104.9 ± 14.4 105.3 ± 14.2 0.760
 Waist-to-Hip 0.92 ± 0.09 0.92 ± 0.09 0.93 ± 0.09 0.92 ± 0.08 0.360
 Fasting Glucose (mg/dl) 106.4 ± 8.2 106.3 ± 8.1 106.4 ± 8.4 106.6 ± 8.2 0.772
 2-Hour Glucose (mg/dl) 164.6 ± 17.0 164.3 ± 16.8 165.0 ± 17.2 164.4 ± 17.1 0.670
 HbA1c (%) 5.9 ± 0.5 5.9 ± 0.5 5.9 ± 0.5 5.9 ± 0.5 0.798
 Total daily energy intake (kcal) 1901.4 [1459.8, 2565.4] 1911.1 [1445.7, 2513.3] 1916.0 [1485.2, 2607.3] 1878.2 [1445.1, 2559.0] 0.354
 Leisure MET hrs per week 9.9 [3.9, 20.7] 9.9 [3.8, 21.3] 10.1 [4.0, 20.8] 9.5 [4.0, 19.4] 0.713
AHEI Scores
 DPP Baseline 44.2 ± 10.4 44.4 ± 10.5 43.8 ± 10.3 44.4 ± 10.5 0.327
 DPP Year 1 (Y01) 46.4 ± 10.2 48.6 ± 10.0 45.0 ± 10.0 45.9 ± 10.3 <.001
 Difference Baseline to Year 1 2.3 ± 8.8 4.2 ± 9.0 1.2 ± 8.5 1.4 ± 8.4 <.001
  1. Abbreviations: AHEI Alternative Healthy Eating Index, BMI Body Mass Index, DPP Diabetes Prevention Program, HbA1c Hemoglobin A1c, ILS Intensive lifestyle intervention, MET Metabolic Equivalent
  2. Data are n (%), mean ± SD, or median [Q1, Q3]
  3. aHypertension is defined as meeting any of three criteria: SBP ≥140 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥90 mmHg, or taking medications that lower blood pressure