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Table 3 Effect of AHEI change (per 10-point increase) from baseline to year 1 on time to diabetes over 3.2 years of follow-up in DPP using Cox proportional hazard models

From: Diet quality, weight loss, and diabetes incidence in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP)

  N Model 1
Adjusted Hazard Ratios
(95% CI)
Model 2
Adjusted Hazard Ratios
(95% CI)
Model 3
Adjusted Hazard Ratios
(95% CI)
All participants a,b 2914 0.903 (0.811, 1.006) 0.919 (0.822, 1.026) 0.980 (0.874, 1.098)
Stratified Models
Treatment group   p-interaction = 0.9785 p-interaction = 0.9591 p-interaction = 0.9726
  Lifestyle b 964 0.884 (0.704, 1.109) 0.856 (0.677, 1.082) 1.013 (0.789, 1.301)
  Metforminb 977 0.869 (0.715, 1.058) 0.915 (0.745, 1.123) 0.963 (0.783, 1.185)
  Placebob 973 0.933 (0.796, 1.093) 0.957 (0.810, 1.130) 0.981 (0.829, 1.162)
Racial/ethnic group   p-interaction = 0.1269 p-interaction = 0.0636 p-interaction = 0.1391
  Caucasiana 1614 0.840 (0.727, 0.970) 0.834 (0.716, 0.972) 0.899 (0.767, 1.055)
  African Americana 564 1.246 (0.967, 1.607) 1.238 (0.948, 1.615) 1.275 (0.981, 1.657)
  Hispanica 460 0.881 (0.682, 1.138) 0.951 (0.727, 1.244) 1.043 (0.788, 1.382)
  American Indiana 154 1.161 (0.636, 2.119) 0.603 (0.302, 1.207) 0.662 (0.333, 1.317)
  Asiana 122 0.622 (0.336, 1.148) 1.376 (0.656, 2.886) 1.422 (0.666, 3.034)
  1. Model 1: Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for baseline values of AHEI, age, sex, BMI, MET hours, and total energy intake
  2. Model 2: Also adjusted for baseline values of education, smoking status, family history of diabetes, alcohol use, fasting and 2 h glucose as well as change from baseline to year one of MET hours per week and total energy intake
  3. Model 3: Also adjusted for baseline weight and weight change from baseline to year 1
  4. aAlso adjusted for treatment group
  5. bAlso adjusted for race/ethnicity