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Table 3 Amino acid profile of three forms of akokonoa (mg/g protein), compared to the concentration of amino acids required to meet the IOM ASF definition

From: Evaluating the nutritional content of an insect-fortified food for the child complementary diet in Ghana

Essential amino acids Raw Roasted Akokono-groundnut paste Concentration of essential amino acids required
to meet IOM ASF definitionb
mg/g protein
Histidine 52 50 32 18
Isoleucine 50 57 41 25
Leucine 40 21 51 55
Lysine 40 39 36* 51
Methionine + Cysteine 28 22 24 25
Phenylalanine + Tyrosine 115 97 91 47
Threonine 32 22 25 27
Tryptophan 5 9 7
Valine 35 36 40 32
Non-essential amino acids
 Alanine 108 140 69
 Arginine 44 92
 Aspartic acid (Aspartate) 47 46 94
 Glutamic acid (Glutamate) 121 138 170
 Glycine 37 31 48
 Proline 91 132 70
 Serine 108 140 69
  1. aValues represent means of duplicate analysis
  2. bInstitute of Medicine (IOM). (2005). Dietary reference intakes for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids. Institute of Medicine, The National Academies Press. Washington, D.C.
  3. *Concentration of lysine in akokono -groundnut paste is more than 10% below IOM ASF definition
  4. ASF: Animal-source food
  5. IOM Institute of Medicine
  6. Akokono-groundnut paste was made with roasted akokono