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Table 2 Child Characteristics and α-Klotho Levels at 2 Years of Age

From: Sugar sweetened beverage consumption is positively associated with Klotho levels at two years of age in LatinX youth

Variable Population mean ± Standard Deviation or n/total α-Klotho levels at 2 years mean ± standard deviation, pg/mL p-value
Birth Characteristics
 Child sex
  Female 30/60 (50) 1900.78 ± 860.19 0.30
  Male 30/60 (50) 1665.14 ± 887.38  
  Gestational age (weeks) 39.12 ± 1.37 1782.96 ± 874.56 0.25
  < 40 44/60 (73) 1735.59 ± 828.01  
  > = 40 16/60 (27) 1913.22 ± 1009.15  
  Gestational age (tertiles) 39.12 ± 1.37 1782.96 ± 874.56 0.25
  < 39 23/60 (39) 1653.50 ± 925.44  
  39–39.8 20/60 (33) 1852.85 ± 725.43  
  > 39.8 17/60 (28) 1875.75 ± 989.24  
  Apgar score at 5 min 8.8 ± 0.6 1782.96 ± 874.56 0.55
  < 9 11/60 (18) 1527.74 ± 448.58  
  > = 9 49/60 (82) 1840.25 ± −  938.05  
Birth Anthropometrics
 Birth weight, g 3384.09 ± 471.41 1782.96 ± 874.56 0.41
Macrosomic at birth (> 4000 g)
 No 57/60 (95) 1779.65 ± 891.88 0.90
 Yes 3/60 (5) 1845.77 ± 533.61  
Underweight (< 2500 g) or preterm (< 37 weeks)
 No 54/60 (90) 1820.17 ± 910.91 0.33
 Yes 6/60 (10) 1448.03 ± 283.36  
 Birth weight percentile 56.53 +/− 25.40 1782.96 ± 874.56 0.05
 < 50% 24/60 (40) 2133.42 ± 1079 .41 0.01
 > = 50% 36/60 (60) 1549.31 ± 619.12  
Birth weight for length below 5th % ile
 No 51/60 (85) 1846.64 ± 919.01 0.18
 Yes 9/60 (15) 1422.09 ± 435.82  
 Head circumference percentile (tertiles) 34.20 +/− 1.42 1782.96 ± 874.56 0.38
 < 25% 36/60 (60) 1511.39 ± 543.04  
 25–50% 18/60 (30) 2398.09 ± 1199.40  
 > 50% 6/60 (10) 1566.93 ± 347.65  
Early childhood anthropometrics
 Obesity in early childhood
  6 months (Yes) 7/60 (12) 1681.31 ± 685.04 0.75
  No 53/60 (88) 1796.38 ± 901.17  
  12 months (Yes) 7/60 (12) 1656.52 ± 761.34 0.69
  No 53/60 (88) 1799.65 ± 893.59  
  24 months (Yes) 6/60 (10) 1975.48 ± 790.31 0.57
  No 52/60 (90) 1756.77 ± 888.70  
Hormone Levels
 IGF-1 at birth (pg/mL) 30,749.25 ± 21,214.53 1792.06.39 ± 953.16 0.71
  < 17,600 14/46 (31) 1559.26 ± 682.81 0.49
 17,600–35,120 17/46 (40) 1814.85 ± 901.79  
  > 35,120 15/46 (33) 1983.53 ± 1209.86  
 IGF-1 at 2 years 29,126.19 ± 15,992.23 1782.96 ± 874.56 0.42
  < 17,600 18/60 (30) 1597.60 ± 663.41 0.54
 17,600–35,120 27/60 (45) 1893.88 ± 1020.88  
  > 35,120 15/60 (25) 1805.73 ± 827.61  
 Ghrelin at birth (pg/mL) 39 ± 22 1499.55 ± 367.95 0.40
  < 22 4/13 (31) 1544.74 ± 563.03 0.85
 22–45 7/13 (54) 1444.72 ± 268.62  
  > 45 2/13 (15) 1601.06 ± 426. 68  
 Insulin at birth (pg/mL) 953.76 ± 546.78 1801.79 ± 985.83 0.18
  > 750 17/41 (41) 1823.06 ± 1112.10 0.65
 750–1060 16/41 (39) 1920.01 ± 986.86  
  > 1060 8/41 (20) 1520.18 ± 718.30  
 Insulin at 2 years (pg/mL) 766.17 ± 900.33 1782.96 ± 874.56 0.35
  > 750 41/60 (68) 1706.81 ± 888.29 0.60
 750–1060 8/60 (13) 1895.41 ± 736.32  
  > 1060 11/60 (18) 1984.96 ± 947.67  
 Leptin at birth (pg/mL) 23,025.87 ± 18,375.04 1766.25 ± 989.08 0.82
  < 11,200 12/39 (30) 1827.42 ± 984.01 0.70
 11,200–27,000 17/39 (44) 1618.32 ± 1063.94  
  > 27,000 10/39 (26) 1944.32 ± 923.65  
 Leptin at 2 years (pg/mL) 733.93 ± 1267.03 1782.96 ± 874.56 0.85
  < 3000 58/60 (96) 1789.65 ± 884.72 0.72
 3000–6000 1/60 (2) 1123.12  
  > 8000 1/60 (2) 2054.59