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Table 1 Demographic and clinical factors by hepatic steatosisa at 24 years in the ALSPAC cohort (n = 3353)

From: Associations of maternal diet and nutritional status with offspring hepatic steatosis in the Avon longitudinal study of parents and children

Median (IQR) or n (%) Total
(n = 3353)
Low
(n = 2662;79.4%)
Mild-Severe
(n = 691; 20.6%)
P-Valued
Maternal & Infant Factors
Maternal age 29.0 (26.0, 32.0) 29.0 (27.0, 32.0) 29.0 (26.0, 32.0) < 0.001
Maternal Highest Education     < 0.001
 Missing 65 (1.9%) 60 (2.3%) 5 (0.7%)  
 CSE/None 313 (9.3%) 236 (8.9%) 77 (11.1%)  
 Vocational 246 (7.3%) 178 (6.7%) 68 (9.8%)  
 O-level 1113 (33.2%) 861 (32.3%) 252 (36.5%)  
 A-level 939 (28.0%) 766 (28.8%) 173 (25.0%)  
 Degree 677 (20.2%) 561 (21.1%) 116 (16.8%)  
Pregnancy physical activity     0.828
 Missing 253 (7.5%) 201 (7.6%) 52 (7.5%)  
 No 2098 (62.6%) 1672 (62.8%) 426 (61.6%)  
 Yes 1002 (29.9%) 789 (29.6%) 213 (30.8%)  
Pregnancy smoking     0.027
 Missing 11 (0.3%) 9 (0.3%) < 5c  
 No 2799 (83.5%) 2241 (84.2%) 558 (80.8%)  
 Yes 543 (16.2%) 412 (15.5%) 131 (19.0%)  
Pregnancy alcohol intake     
 Missing 10 (0.3%) 9 (0.3%) < 5c 0.002
 No 1823 (54.4%) 1410 (53.0%) 413 (59.8%)  
 Yes 1520 (45.3%) 1243 (46.7%) 277 (40.1%)  
Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI 22.0 (20.5, 24.1) 21.8 (20.4, 23.7) 22.7 (20.9, 25.7) < 0.001
 Missing 255 (7.6%) 208 (7.8%) 47 (6.8%)  
 Underweight 127 (3.8%) 109 (4.1%) 18 (2.6%)  
 Normal 2411 (71.9%) 1968 (73.9%) 443 (64.1%)  
 Overweight 420 (12.5%) 294 (11.0%) 126 (18.2%)  
 Obese 140 (4.2%) 83 (3.1%) 57 (8.2%)  
Maternal diabetes     0.314
 Missing 86 (2.6%) 70 (2.6%) 16 (2.3%)  
 None 3140 (93.6%) 2500 (93.9%) 640 (92.6%)  
 Pre-existing 11 (0.3%) 7 (0.3%) < 5c  
 Gestational 13 (0.4%) 10 (0.4%) < 5c  
 Glycosuria 103 (3.1%) 75 (2.8%) 28 (4.1%)  
Gestational weight gain     0.002
 Missing 321 (9.6%) 262 (9.8%) 59 (8.5%)  
 Recommended 900 (26.8%) 746 (28.0%) 154 (22.3%)  
  < Recommended 370 (11.0%) 299 (11.2%) 71 (10.3%)  
  > Recommended 1762 (52.5%) 1355 (50.9%) 407 (58.9%)  
Total energy intake (kJ/day)b 7127 (6000, 8361) 7162 (6050, 8371) 6977 (5813, 8237) 0.009
Free sugars (g/day)b 51.7 (36.8, 70.8) 52.3 (36.9, 71.3) 50.1 (36.7, 69.5) 0.189
% Free sugarsb 0.12 (0.10, 0.16) 0.12 (0.10, 0.16) 0.12 (0.09, 0.16) 0.871
Sex (% male) 1276 (38.1%) 946 (35.5%) 330 (47.8%) < 0.001
Birthweight (g) 3440 (3130, 3760) 3423 (3120, 3750) 3483 (3180, 3805) 0.014
 Missing 43 (1.3%) 32 (1.2%) 11 (1.6%) 0.409
 Low 106 (3.2%) 84 (3.2%) 22 (3.2%)  
 Normal 2783 (83.0%) 2223 (83.5%) 560 (81.0%)  
 High 421 (12.56%) 323 (12.1%) 98 (14.2%)  
Breastfeeding     0.011
 Missing 230 (6.9%) 185 (6.9%) 45 (6.5%)  
 Never 509 (15.2%) 381 (14.3%) 128 (18.5%)  
  < 3 months 640 (19.1%) 509 (19.1%) 131 (19.0%)  
 3–5 months 543 (16.2%) 418 (15.7%) 125 (18.1%)  
  ≥ 6 months 1431 (42.7%) 1169 (43.9%) 262 (37.9%)  
Adult characteristics at 24 years
BMI (kg/m2) 23.8 (21.5, 26.9) 23.0 (21.0, 25.4) 28.6 (25.2, 33.1) < 0.001
 Missing 31 (0.9%) 23 (0.9%) 8 (1.2%) < 0.001
 Underweight 103 (3.1%) 99 (3.7%) < 5c  
 Normal 1961 (58.5%) 1807 (67.9%) 154 (22.3%)  
 Overweight 842 (25.1%) 592 (22.2%) 250 (36.2%)  
 Obese 416 (12.4%) 141 (5.3%) 275 (39.8%)  
AUDIT-C score 5 (4, 7) 5 (4, 7) 5 (3, 7) 0.011
 Missing 73 (2.2%) 58 (2.2%) 15 (2.2%) 0.019
 High alcohol 1798 (53.6%) 1460 (54.8%) 338 (48.9%)  
Liver steatosis (CAP value; dB/m) 203 (172, 238) 191 (166, 214) 278 (261, 304) < 0.001
Fibrosis (kPA) 4.5 (3.8, 5.4) 4.5 (3.8, 5.4) 4.6 (3.8, 5.5)  
 Missing 194 (5.8%) 169 (5.6%) 25 (7.5%) 0.38
 None 3080 (91.9%) 2454 (92.2%) 626 (90.6%)  
 Any 79 (2.4%) 61 (2.3%) 18 (2.6%)  
  1. aHepatic steatosis based on CAP score cut-off values: low (< 248 dB/m, < 11% steatosis) vs mild to severe (248–400 dB/m, ≥11% steatosis) [41]
  2. bn = 125 were missing free sugar and total energy intake values
  3. cGroups with less than five participants are expressed as n < 5 in line with the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) confidentiality policy
  4. dWilcoxon rank sum (equal variance) and Kolmogrov-Smirnov (unequal variance) tests were used for continuous variables. Chi-squared tests were used for categorical variables. Statistically significant p-values are bolded
  5. Abbreviations: IQR Interquartile Range, CSE certificate of secondary education, BMI Body mass index, AUDIT-C Alcohol use disorders identification test consumption, CAP controlled attenuation parameter