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Table 2 Associations between maternal factors and offspring hepatic steatosisa at 24 years in the ALSPAC cohort

From: Associations of maternal diet and nutritional status with offspring hepatic steatosis in the Avon longitudinal study of parents and children

  1)
unadjusted
2)
+ confoundersd
3a)
+ birthweight
3b)
+ breastfeeding
3c)
+  24-year BMI
OR 95% CL OR 95% CL OR 95% CL OR 95% CL OR 95% CL
Diabetesb
No Ref    Ref    Ref    Ref    Ref   
Yes 1.49 1.00 2.22 1.39 0.87 2.21 1.36 0.85 2.19 1.34 0.83 2.16 1.12 0.65 1.92
Pre-pregnancy BMI
Underweight 0.73 0.44 1.22 0.67 0.37 1.20 0.68 0.38 1.23 0.67 0.37 1.23 1.12 0.59 2.11
Normal Ref    Ref    Ref    Ref    Ref   
Overweight 1.90 1.51 2.40 1.84 1.43 2.38 1.85 1.43 2.40 1.82 1.40 2.36 1.23 0.91 1.65
Obese 3.05 2.14 4.34 2.73 1.84 4.03 2.71 1.82 4.03 2.55 1.69 3.85 0.95 0.59 1.51
Gestational weight gain
< Rec. 1.15 0.84 1.57 1.11 0.79 1.55 1.11 0.79 1.56 1.06 0.75 1.52 1.25 0.86 1.84
Rec. Ref    Ref    Ref    Ref    Ref   
> Rec. 1.46 1.18 1.79 1.30 1.04 1.64 1.33 1.06 1.68 1.35 1.07 1.71 1.15 0.89 1.48
Free sugarc tertiles
1.3–10.4% Ref    Ref            
10.4–14.3% 1.01 0.82 1.25 1.12 0.88 1.42          
14.3–42.2% 1.02 0.83 1.26 1.04 0.82 1.33          
  1. aHepatic steatosis based on CAP score cut-off values: low (< 248 dB/m, < 11% steatosis) vs mild to severe (248–400 dB/m, ≥11% steatosis) [41]. Sample sizes for each model were 1.Diabetes = 3267; 1.Pre-pregnancy BMI = 3098; 1.GWG = 3032, 1.Free sugar = 3204; 2.Diabetes, BMI, and GWG =2668; 2.Free sugar = 2646; 3a = 2639; 3b = 2522; 3c = 2645
  2. bDiabetes is defined as maternal existing diabetes, gestational diabetes, or glycosuria during pregnancy
  3. cFree sugars are presented as percent of total energy intake
  4. dConfounders include maternal age, highest level of maternal education, maternal smoking in pregnancy, alcohol intake in pregnancy, physical activity in pregnancy, and sex. The maternal exposures (pre-pregnancy BMI, maternal diabetes, and gestational weight gain) were also included as covariates in model 2. The model focused on free sugar exposure, additionally adjusted for total energy intake and did not adjusted for maternal diabetes since those individuals were excluded
  5. Abbreviations: OR odds ratio, CL confidence limits, BMI body mass index, Rec recommended, GWG gestational weight gain