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Table 1 Characteristics of study subjects

From: Association between milk and yogurt intake and mortality: a community-based cohort study (Yamagata study)

  Total None
(< 1/month)
Low
(1–3/month)
Moderate
(1–6/week)
High
(> 1/day)
P-value
   Yogurt intake
Number (%) 14,264 (100) 2844 (19.9) 2535 (17.8) 5459 (38.3) 3426 (24.0)  
Male 37.3 64.8 38.8 26.8 30.1 < 0.01
Age, years 61.5 ± 8.7 61.8 ± 8.8 59.8 ± 9.1 61.3 ± 8.6 63.1 ± 8.0 < 0.01
Body mass index, kg/m2 23.0 ± 3.2 23.2 ± 3.2 23.2 ± 3.3 23.0 ± 3.2 22.8 ± 3.1 < 0.01
Smoking, % 12.0 24.5 15.5 8.0 5.5 < 0.01
Alcohol consumption, % 46.0 61.9 49.1 39.9 40.0 < 0.01
Hypertension, % 41.2 48.4 39.2 39.1 40.1 < 0.01
Diabetes mellitus, % 9.5 11.0 8.9 9.3 9.2 0.04
Dyslipidemia, % 50.4 51.5 49.5 49.9 51.1 0.34
Education period, %
< 9 / 10–12 / > 13 years
12.9/70.0/17.2 15.9/68.2/15.9 12.9/71.1/16.0 11.5/71.7/16.8 12.5/67.9/19.7 < 0.01
   Milk intake
Number (%) 14,264 (100) 2705 (19.0) 1748 (12.3) 5251 (36.8) 4560 (32.0)  
Male 37.3 45.3 43.0 34.4 33.8 < 0.01
Age, years 61.5 ± 8.7 60.7 ± 8.9 60.0 ± 9.2 61.5 ± 8.5 62.7 ± 8.3 < 0.01
Body mass index, kg/m2 23.0 ± 3.2 22.8 ± 3.2 23.2 ± 3.2 23.2 ± 3.2 22.9 ± 3.1 < 0.01
Smoking, % 12.0 19.3 15.2 10.4 8.3 < 0.01
Alcohol consumption, % 46.0 52.5 51.0 44.9 41.3 < 0.01
Hypertension, % 41.2 42.3 41.2 41.3 40.6 0.59
Diabetes mellitus, % 9.5 8.9 9.4 10.0 9.4 0.43
Dyslipidemia, % 50.4 48.0 48.9 50.6 52.3 < 0.01
Education period, %
< 9 / 10–12 / > 13 years
12.9/70.0/17.2 13.5/69.3/17.2 13.6/69.7/16.7 12.7/70.7/16.6 12.5/69.6/17.9 0.46