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Table 2 Cox proportional hazards analysis: the association between the intake of yogurt and milk and mortality

From: Association between milk and yogurt intake and mortality: a community-based cohort study (Yamagata study)

  Person-year Number of deaths Incident rate
(/1000 person-year)
Unadjusted Adjusteda
HR (95%CI) P-value HR (95%CI) P-value
Total mortality
 Yogurt intake
  None 17,681 99 5.6 reference   Reference  
  Low 16,205 41 2.5 0.45 (0.31–0.64) < 0.01 0.72 (0.48–1.07) 0.10
  Moderate 34,767 76 2.2 0.39 (0.29–0.52) < 0.01 0.70 (0.49–0.99) 0.04
High 21,118 49 2.3 0.42 (0.29–0.58) < 0.01 0.62 (0.42–0.91) 0.01
 Milk intake
  None 16,568 68 4.1 reference   reference  
  Low 11,019 27 2.5 0.59 (0.37–0.92) 0.02 0.68 (0.41–1.09) 0.11
  Moderate 33,741 74 2.2 0.53 (0.38–0.74) < 0.01 0.67 (0.46–0.97) 0.03
  High 28,443 96 3.4 0.82 (0.60–1.12) 0.22 1.06 (0.75–1.50) 0.74
Cancer-related mortality
 Yogurt intake
  None 12,166 38 3.1 reference   reference  
  Low 11,214 18 1.6 0.51 (0.28–0.88) 0.02 0.90 (0.48–1.63) 0.74
  Moderate 23,978 17 0.7 0.23 (0.12–0.39) < 0.01 0.46 (0.24–0.86) 0.01
  High 14,359 17 1.2 0.38 (0.21–0.66) < 0.01 0.53 (0.27–0.99) 0.047
 Milk intake
  None 11,283 27 2.4 reference   reference  
  Low 7576 10 1.3 0.55 (0.25–1.09) 0.09 0.70 (0.32–1.46) 0.35
  Moderate 23,360 17 0.7 0.30 (0.16–0.55) < 0.01 0.42 (0.21–0.81) 0.01
  High 19,499 36 1.8 0.77 (0.47–1.28) 0.30 1.08 (0.62–1.89) 0.80
Cardiovascular mortality
 Yogurt intake
  None 12,166 12 1.0 reference   reference  
  Low 11,214 5 0.4 0.45 (0.14–1.22) 0.12 0.85 (0.26–2.49) 0.78
  Moderate 23,978 15 0.6 0.64 (0.30–1.39) 0.25 1.08 (0.44–2.74) 0.87
  High 14,359 8 0.6 0.56 (0.22–1.36) 0.20 1.06 (0.39–2.84) 0.91
 Milk intake
  None 11,283 11 1.0 reference   reference  
  Low 7576 3 0.4 0.41 (0.09–1.31) 0.14 0.52 (0.11–1.78) 0.31
  Moderate 23,360 17 0.7 0.75 (0.36–1.65) 0.47 0.88 (0.38–2.18) 0.78
  High 19,499 9 0.5 0.47 (0.19–1.15) 0.10 0.50 (0.18–1.35) 0.17
  1. CI confidence interval, HR hazard ratio
  2. a adjusted for age, gender, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index, education period