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Table 3 Dietary diversity score and food security status by demographic, anthropometric and clinical characteristics of patients

From: Dietary diversity and food security status among heart failure patients in the north of Iran

Characteristic Dietary diversity score Food secure status
< 2
(n = 100)
> = 2
(n = 100)
P* Secure (n = 86) Mild insecure (n = 52) Moderate insecure (n = 32) Severe insecure (n = 30) P*
Sex, no. (%) 0.774**      0.032
 Male 58(49) 60(51)   56(47) 22(19) 19(16) 21(18)  
 Female 42(51) 40(49)   30(37) 30(37) 13(16) 9(11)  
 Age (years), mean (SD) 66 (12.3) 65 (12.0) 0.515 66(11.0) 65(13.7) 62(14.5) 69(8.9) 0.312
Education, no. (%) 0.529      0.026
 Illiterate 51(53) 45(47)   33(34) 30(31) 14(15) 19(20)  
 Primary 25(53) 22(47)   20(43) 11(23) 6(13) 10(21)  
 Secondary 14(47) 16(53)   14(47) 8(27) 8(27) 0(0)  
 Diploma 8(42) 11(58)   13(68) 3(16) 3(16) 0(0)  
 Academic 2(25) 6(75)   6(75) 0(0) 1(13) 1(13)  
Household size, no. (%) 0.430      0.270
 1 13(43) 17(57)   17(57) 3(10) 4(13) 6(20)  
 2 46(52) 43(48)   37(42) 25(28) 11(12) 16(18)  
 3 28(57) 21(43)   20(41) 15(31) 11(22) 3(6)  
 4 or more 13(41) 19(59)   12(38) 9(28) 6(19) 5(16)  
Socioeconomic status, no. (%) 0.303**      0.001
 Low 46(54) 39(46)   31(36) 14(16) 19(22) 21(25)  
 Middle 47(49) 48(51)   44(46) 30(32) 12(13) 9(9)  
 High 7(35) 13(65)   11(55) 8(40) 1(5) 0(0)  
Smoking status, no. (%)*** 0.030**      0.439
 Non-smoker 72(55) 58(45)   54(42) 39(30) 19(15) 18(14)  
 Former-smoker 16(33) 32(67)   20(42) 10(21) 8(17) 10(21)  
 Current smoker 12(55) 10(45)   12(55) 3(14) 5(23) 2(9)  
BMI category, no. (%) 0.513      0.794
 Under weight 1(50) 1(50)   0(0) 1(50) 1(50) 0(0)  
 Normal 29(44) 37(56)   25(38) 19(29) 12(18) 10(15)  
 Overweight 45(56) 35(44)   35(44) 19(24) 13(16) 13(16)  
 Obese 25(48) 27(52)   26(50) 13(25) 6(12) 7(13)  
 Weight loss in the last 6 months (yes), no. (%) 42(48) 45(52) 0.669** 34(39) 29(33) 11(13) 13(15) 0.185
 Waist circumference (cm), mean (SD) 97(23) 94(26) 0.101 97(22) 87(15) 97(32) 104(33) 0.048
 Supplement use, no. (%) 17(37) 29(63) 0.044** 20(43) 13(28) 7(15) 6(13) 0.961
History of disease, no. (%)
 Heart disease 34(49) 36(51) 0.767** 34(49) 18(26) 12(17) 6(9) 0.280
 Diabetes 55(56) 44(44) 0.120** 43(43) 29(29) 15(15) 12(12) 0.573
 Hypertension 73(56) 58(44) 0.026** 55(42) 38(29) 23(18) 15(11) 0.159
 Hyperlipidemia 36(49) 38(51) 0.770** 31(42) 24(32) 10(14) 9(12) 0.394
 Heart failure duration (years), mean (SD) 3.2(4.32) 2.0(2.56) 0.009 2.8(3.82) 2.5(4.03) 2.3(2.98) 2.7(2.77) 0.202
 FBS (mg/dl), mean (SD) 146(66) 145(69) 0.566 151(70) 159(80) 127(4)5 128(45) 0.102
 TC (mg/dl), mean (SD) 148(57) 136(35) 0.103 143(58) 149(44) 135(29) 135(33) 0.447
 TG (mg/dl), mean (SD) 120(76) 103(39) 0.347 113(58) 122(76) 103(65) 102(29) 0.452
 HDL (mg/dl), mean (SD) 39(10) 38(10) 0.398 39(10) 38(10) 39(11) 40(10) 0.916
 LDL (mg/dl), mean (SD) 84(46) 76(30) 0.338 80(47) 87(33) 74(25) 75(31) 0.331
 Ejection fraction (%), mean (SD) 25(11) 28(12) 0.108 26(11) 27(13) 26(11) 29(12) 0.600
  1. SD indicated standard deviation, BMI body mass index, FBS fasting blood sugar, TC total cholesterol, TG triglyceride, HDL high density lipoprotein, LDL low density lipoprotein, BUN blood urea nitrogen, NA sodium, K potassium
  2. * P-value was reported from Kruskal-Wallis test except otherwise indicated
  3. ** P-value was reported from Chi-square test
  4. *** Based on the post-hoc paired comparisons, only former-smokers compared to non-smokers had significantly greater diet diversity (P = 0.006) and other comparisons was not significant ((P > 0.05 for all)