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Table 1 Anthropometric, physical activity and dietary data before and after quitting, CoLaus study, Lausanne, Switzerland

From: No changes in dietary intake after quitting smoking; a prospective study in Switzerland

  Before quitting After quitting P-value
Sample size 128 128  
Anthropometry c
 Weight (kg) 72.3 ± 15.8 74.4 ± 16.5 < 0.001 *
 Body mass index (kg/m2) 25.0 ± 4.4 25.9 ± 4.7 < 0.001 *
Physical activity d
 Energy expenditure 2651 [2267; 3064] 2609 [2217; 3198] 0.658
 Sedentarity (%) 47 (47.0) 48 (48.0) 1.000
Total energy intake (kcal) 1811 [1396–2234] 1744 [1357–2169] 0.162
Macronutrients (g/d)
 Total protein 66 [50; 88] 64 [51; 86] 0.973
 Vegetable protein 19 [15; 27] 18 [14; 27] 0.226
 Animal protein 45 [33; 60] 46 [33; 60] 0.676
 Carbohydrates 200 [152; 268] 188 [147; 253] 0.131
 Disaccharides 92 [66; 127] 88 [65; 116] 0.487
 Polysaccharides 96 [70; 141] 89 [61; 138] 0.115
 Total fat 65 [52; 91] 65 [47; 82] 0.224
 SFA 25 [19; 35] 23 [16; 31] 0.008
 MUFA 26 [21; 35] 26 [19; 35] 0.698
 PUFA 9 [7; 12] 9 [6; 12] 0.036
 Alcohol 7 [1; 19] 7 [1; 19] 0.948
 Fibre 13 [10–20] 13 [9–19] 0.730
Macronutrients (% TEI)
 Total protein 14.4 [12.9–16.4] 15.1 [13.4–17.9] 0.008
 Vegetable protein 4.6 [3.8–5.3] 4.4 [3.8–5.3] 0.664
 Animal protein 9.7 [8.0–12.1] 10.8 [8.5–13.5] 0.011
 Carbohydrates 45.2 [38.8–51.7] 44.1 [39.1–51.0] 0.295
 Disaccharides 19.9 [15.3–27.2] 21.0 [15.4–25.6] 0.495
 Polysaccharides 22.9 [16.6–27.6] 20.9 [16.6–27.7] 0.199
 Total fat 34.5 [29.0–38.8] 34.6 [30.1–39.2] 0.754
 SFA 12.9 [10.8–15.3] 12.4 [10.6–14.3] 0.048
 MUFA 13.1 [11.0–15.8] 14.3 [11.4–16.4] 0.162
 PUFA 4.6 [3.8–5.5] 4.6 [3.8–5.6] 0.935
 Alcohol 3.4 [0.6–7.3] 2.8 [0.5–6.5] 0.598
Micronutrients
 Cholesterol (mg/d) 289 [218–365] 268 [197–381] 0.978
 Calcium (mg/d) 941 [706–1297] 778 [581–1255] 0.028
 Iron (mg/d) 10.1 [7.7–12.7] 10.1 [7.5–12.9] 0.931
 Vitamin D 1.9 [1.4–2.7] 2.2 [1.4–3.4] 0.066
Foods (g/day)
 Dairy 177 [94–288] 150 [77–243] 0.009
 Red meat 37 [18–64] 38 [24–64] 0.377
 Processed meat 10 [4–19] 10 [3–17] 0.224
 Wholegrain 30 [5–76] 27 [6–70] 0.885
 Fresh fruits 132 [57–280] 147 [72–264] 0.474
 Fresh fruits + fresh juice 169 [72–302] 178 [92–333] 0.097
 Any fruit and fruit juice 218 [97–394] 241 [135–370] 0.142
 Vegetables 125 [80–197] 134 [89–200] 0.203
 Fish, excluding fried 20 [13–35] 28 [15–46] 0.009
 Fish, all 27 [17–45] 37 [19–55] 0.016
 Ultraprocessed foods 60 [14–148] 54 [7–161] 0.166
Compliance to guidelines (%)
 Fruits ≥2/day 41 (32.5) 51 (40.5) 0.143
 Vegetables ≥3/day 7 (5.6) 8 (6.4) 1.000
 Meat ≤5/week 80 (63.5) 73 (57.9) 0.337
 Fish ≥1/week a 82 (65.1) 89 (70.6) 0.296
 Fish ≥1/week b 44 (34.9) 58 (46.0) 0.039
 Dairy ≥3/day 11 (8.7) 11 (8.7) 1.000
  1. a, excluding fried fish; b, all fish. c, for 122 participants; d, for 100 participants
  2. SFA saturated fatty acids; MUFA monounsaturated fatty acids; PUFA polyunsaturated fatty acids; TEI total energy intake
  3. Results are expressed as number of participants (column percentage) for categorical variables and as average ± standard deviation or as median [interquartile range] for continuous variables. Between-group comparisons were performed using McNemar’s test for categorical variables and student’s t-test (*) or Wilcoxon’s sign test for continuous variables