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Table 2 Changes between baseline and follow-up in anthropometry, physical activity and dietary intake between quitters and maintainers, and between quitters and never smokers, matched for gender and age, CoLaus study, Lausanne, Switzerland

From: No changes in dietary intake after quitting smoking; a prospective study in Switzerland

  Quitters Maintainers Never smokers P-value § P-value ǂ
Sample size 128 128 128   
Anthropometry a
 Weight (kg) 2.2 ± 4.2 0.3 ± 4.4 0.4 ± 4.4 0.004 * 0.003 *
 Body mass index (kg/m2) 0.92 ± 1.44 0.39 ± 1.50 0.33 ± 1.51 0.013 * 0.002 *
Energy expenditure b −34 [− 284; 232] −4 [− 242; 256] −92 [− 337; 134] 0.441 0.159
Total energy intake (kcal) −86 [− 450; 316] 10 [− 399; 349] 46 [− 287; 385] 0.739 0.099
Macronutrients (g/d)
 Total protein −1 [− 14; 14] 5 [− 13; 16] − 4 [− 17; 13] 0.413 0.495
 Vegetable protein − 2 [− 7; 4] 1 [− 3; 5] − 1 [− 7; 4] 0.116 0.600
 Animal protein 0 [− 14; 13] 3 [− 11; 16] −3 [− 10; 11] 0.556 0.873
 Carbohydrates −13 [− 62; 40] 6 [− 35; 46] −7 [− 66; 45] 0.226 0.986
 Disaccharides − 4 [− 27; 26] 3 [− 25; 20] − 1 [− 29; 23] 0.495 0.626
 Polysaccharides −6 [− 35; 24] 5 [− 22; 29] −1 [− 46; 24] 0.075 0.520
 Total fat −4 [− 20; 14] 4 [− 10; 19] −2 [− 15; 12] 0.060 0.390
 SFA −2 [−9; 4] 1 [− 5; 7] − 1 [− 7; 6] 0.013 0.135
 MUFA −1 [− 7; 8] 2 [− 4; 9] −1 [− 6; 6] 0.123 0.819
 PUFA −1 [−3; 1] 0 [− 2; 3] −1 [− 2; 2] 0.060 0.446
 Alcohol 0 [− 3; 3] 0 [− 3; 5] 0 [− 1; 2] 0.885 0.690
 Fibre 0 [− 4; 4] 0 [− 2; 4] −1 [− 4; 3] 0.335 0.721
Macronutrients (% TEI)
 Total protein 0.5 [−1.2; 2.8] 0.1 [− 2; 2] 0.3 [− 1.7; 1.7] 0.188 0.115
 Vegetable protein 0 [−0.8; 0.6] 0 [− 0.7; 0.9] −0.2 [− 0.9; 0.7] 0.641 0.307
 Animal protein 0.5 [− 1.2; 3.4] −0.3 [− 2.3; 2.7] 0 [−1.8; 2.2] 0.199 0.247
 Carbohydrates − 0.6 [− 6.4; 5.0] −0.6 [− 6.8; 3.4] −1.2 [− 6.7; 4.7] 0.340 0.432
 Disaccharides 0.4 [−3.9; 4.4] − 1.4 [− 5.7; 3.3] 0.9 [− 4.1; 5.0] 0.027 0.797
 Polysaccharides −0.8 [− 5.3; 3.7] 0.5 [− 5.3; 5.3] −1.5 [− 6.4; 4.3] 0.462 0.352
 Total fat 0.3 [− 4.7; 5.0] 0.3 [− 3.8; 5.3] 1.4 [−3.6; 5.8] 0.399 0.281
 SFA − 0.4 [− 2.9; 1.6] − 0.1 [− 2.0; 2.4] 0.5 [− 2.0; 2.1] 0.109 0.051
 MUFA 0.4 [− 1.4; 2.8] 0.5 [− 2.0; 2.7] 0.6 [− 1.8; 3.0] 0.825 0.638
 PUFA 0 [− 0.7; 0.8] 0.1 [− 0.7; 1.0] 0 [− 0.7; 1.0] 0.273 0.556
 Alcohol 0 [− 1.6; 1.1] 0 [− 1.7; 2.3] 0 [− 0.5; 0.7] 0.654 0.333
Micronutrients
 Cholesterol (mg/d) −2 [− 78; 84] 40 [− 29; 113] 2 [− 67; 66] 0.021 0.854
 Calcium (mg/d) − 82 [− 399; 165] 53 [− 255; 318] −37 [− 318; 260] 0.054 0.367
 Iron (mg/d) −0.1 [− 2.1; 2.1] 0.5 [− 1.6; 2.2] −0.5 [− 3.0; 2.2] 0.638 0.197
 Vitamin D 0.1 [−0.5; 1.2] 0.2 [− 0.5; 1.1] 0 [− 0.6; 1.2] 0.982 0.959
Foods (g/day)
 Dairy −27 [−81; 31] 7 [−65; 66] − 5 [− 66; 56] 0.184 0.215
 Red meat 0 [− 14; 18] 4 [− 23; 18] −5 [− 21; 14] 0.684 0.250
 Processed meat 0 [− 7; 4] 0 [− 7; 6] 0 [− 5; 5] 0.459 0.171
 Wholegrain 0 [− 18; 22] 0 [− 9; 24] 0 [− 27; 12] 0.284 0.591
 Fresh fruits 8 [− 92; 90] 7 [− 47; 81] − 8 [− 85; 53] 0.721 0.741
 Fresh fruits + fresh juice 23 [− 58; 114] 8 [− 49; 102] − 13 [− 95; 72] 0.585 0.382
 Any fruit and fruit juice 22 [− 71; 126] − 5 [− 87; 80] 2 [− 103; 98] 0.313 0.215
 Vegetables 3 [− 35; 59] 2 [−41; 59] 2 [− 43; 61] 0.901 0.714
 Fish, excluding fried 2 [−5; 14] 5 [− 5; 17] 0 [− 11; 11] 0.797 0.021
 Fish, all 2 [− 10; 17] 4 [− 6; 19] 0 [− 15; 13] 1.000 0.018
 Ultraprocessed foods − 4 [− 46; 29] 0 [− 46; 25] −2 [− 43; 19] 0.741 0.714
  1. a, for 122 participants; b, for 100 participants. §, comparing quitters to maintainers; ǂ comparing quitters to never smokers
  2. SFA saturated fatty acids; MUFA monounsaturated fatty acids; PUFA polyunsaturated fatty acids; TEI total energy intake
  3. For each participant, the difference between data collected in 2014–2017 and data collected in 2009–2012 were computed Results are expressed as average ± standard deviation or as median [interquartile range]. Between-group comparisons were performed using student’s t-test (*) or Wilcoxon sign test for continuous variables