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Table 1 Participants’ breakfast consumption according to sociodemographics, medical history and lifestyle characteristics presented in n (%)/ mean ± sd

From: Breakfast characteristics, perception, and reasons of skipping among 8th and 9th-grade students at governmental schools, Jenin governance, West Bank

  Total N (%) Breakfast consumption P value
All days Sometimes Never
Socio demographic
 Gender
  Boys 57 (29.5) 18 (31.6) 32 (56.1) 7 (12.3) 0.527
  Girl 136 (70.5) 44 (32.4) 67 (49.3) 25 (18.4
 School location
  City 103 (53.4) 40 (38.8) 51 (49.5) 12 (11.7) 0.039 *1
  Village 90 (46.6) 22 (24.4) 48 (53.3) 20 (22.2)
 Grade
  8th 110 (57) 40 (36.4) 55 (59) 15 (13.6) 0.24
  9th 83 (43) 22 (26.5) 44 (53) 17 (20.5)
 Family type
  Nuclear family 170 (88.1) 52 (30.6) 89 (52.4) 29 (17.1) 0.459
  Extended family 23 (11.9) 10 (43.5) 10 (43.5) 3 (13)
 Parents’ education
  Both parents have primary education 20 (10.4) 4 (20) 14 (70) 2 (10) 0.064
  Both parents have secondary education 31 (16.1) 15 (48.4) (11 (35.5) 5 (16.1)
  Both parents have university degree 40 (20.7) 12 (30) 23 57.5) 5 (12.5)
  Mixed level; primary /secondary 34 (17.6) 16 (47.1) 14 (41.2) 4 (11.8)
  Mixed level; primary /university degree 43 (22.3) 10 (23.3) 25 (58.1) 5 (18.6)
  Mixed level; secondary /university degree 25 (13) 5 (20) 12 (48) 8 (32)
 Parents working status
  Both parents are not working 5 (2.6) 2 (40) 3 (60) 0 (0) 0.579
  Both parents are working 47 (24.4) 12 (25.5) 28 (59.6) 7 (14.9)
  One of parents’ work 140 (72.5) 48 (34) 68 (48.2) 25 (17.7)
Medical history
 Presence of Chronic diseases
  Yes 19 (9.8) 8 (42.1) 8 (42.1) 3 (15.8) 0.604
  No 174 (90.2) 54 (31) 91 (52.3) 29 (16.7)
 History of surgical operation
  Yes 8 (4.1) 4 (50) 3 (37.5) 1 (12.5) 0.541
  No 185 (95.9) 58 (31.4) 96 (51.9) 31 (16.8)
Lifestyle
 Go to school
  Walking 159 (83.7) 48 (30.2) 83 (52.2) 28 (17.6) 0.335
  Using transports (public or private) 31 (16.3) 13 (41.9) 15 (48.4) 3 (9.7)
 Go for exercise (home, outside)
  Yes regularly 37 (19.3) 17 (45.9) 17 (45.9) 3 (8.1) 0.015
  Yes, irregular 109 (56.8) 35 (32.1) 59 (54.1) 15 (13.8)
  No 46 (24) 9 (19.6) 23 (50) 14 (30.4)
 Wake up time
  Before 6:00 am 24 (12.9) 8 (33.3) 9 (37.5) 7 (29.2) 0.09
  6:00–7:00 am 98 (52.7) 37 (37.8) 49 (50) 12 (12.2)
  7:00–8:00 am 47 (25.3) 8 (17) 31 (66) 8 (17)
  After 8:00 am 17 (9.1) 6 (35.3) 9 (52.9) 2 (11.8)
 Sleep time
  Before 9:00 pm 21 (11.4) 5 (23.8) 14 (66.7) 2 (9.5)  
  9:00–10:00 pm 70 (37.8) 31 (44.3) 36 (51.4) 3 (4.3) 0.002**1
  10:00–11:00 pm 36 (19.5) 10 (27.8) 20 (55.6) 6 (16.7)
  After 11:00 pm 58 (31.4) 13 (22.4) 28 (48.3) 17 (29.3)
Continuous variables (presented in mean ± sd)
  All the time (mean ± sd) Sometimes (mean ± sd) Never (mean ± sd) P value
Number of family members 6.7 ± 1.5 6.9 ± 1.7 6.5 ± 1.4 0.526
Pocket money (NIS/ day) 5.6 ± 4.3 4.9 ± 2.1 6.3 ± 3.7 0.063
Sleeping hours 8.1 ± 1.1 8.1 ± 1.4 7.5 ± 1.7 0.061
Screen time 3.3 ± 2.3 4.7 ± 3.1 5.4 ± 2.7 0.002**2
  1. *Significant at p < 0.05, ** significant p < 0.01
  2. 1 using chi square test, 2 using one way ANOVA