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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population (N = 326)

From: Body mass index and associated factors among refugees living in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany: a cross-sectional study

   Overall Male Female
n % n % n %
Age Mean (SD) 32.4 (11.0) 31.9 (11.2) 33.8 (10.4)
Sex   326 100.0 238 73.0 88 27.0
Nationality Syrians 132 40.5 96 40.3 36 40.9
Afghans 42 12.9 33 13.9 9 10.2
Iraqis 79 24.2 56 23.5 23 26.1
Iranians 19 5.8 14 5.9 5 5.7
African countriesa 23 7.1 14 5.9 9 10.2
Otherb 30 9.2 24 10.1 6 6.8
Missing values 1 0.3 1 0.4 0 0.0
Marital status Unmarried 145 44.5 122 51.3 23 26.1
Married 154 47.2 103 43.3 51 58.0
Divorced 18 5.5 9 3.8 9 10.2
Widowed 5 1.5 2 0.8 3 3.4
Missing values 4 1.2 2 0.8 2 2.3
Education Low 135 41.4 93 39.1 42 47.7
Medium 127 39.0 97 40.8 30 34.1
High 63 19.3 48 20.2 15 17.1
Missing values 1 0.3 0 0.0 1 1.1
Employment status Employed 33 10.1 33 13.9 0 0.0
Unemployed 284 87.1 199 83.6 85 96.6
Missing values 9 2.8 6 2.5 3 3.4
Length of stay since arrival < 12 months 42 12.9 21 8.8 21 23.9
12–24 months 32 12.9 22 9.2 10 11.4
25–36 months 168 51.5 139 58.4 29 33.0
> 36 months 80 24.5 54 22.7 26 29.6
Missing values 4 1.2 2 0.8 2 2.3
Exercise (sport) No exercise 176 54.0 114 47.9 62 70.5
< 120 min per week 102 31.8 83 35.2 19 22.4
≥120 min per week 43 13.4 39 16.5 4 4.7
Missing values 5 1.5 2 0.8 3 3.4
Smoking status Smoker 180 55.2 151 63.5 29 33.0
Non-smoker 141 43.3 85 35.7 56 63.6
Missing values 5 1.5 2 0.8 3 3.4
Alcohol use Sobriety/abstinence 187 57.4 119 50.0 68 77.3
Low-risk consumptionc 81 24.9 72 30.3 9 10.2
Risky consumptiond 35 10.7 28 11.8 7 8.0
Dangerous consumptione 11 3.4 10 4.2 1 1.1
Missing values 12 3.7 9 3.8 3 3.4
Fruit & vegetable consumption ≥5 servings per day 28 8.6 18 7.6 10 11.4
< 5 servings per day 290 89.0 214 90.0 76 86.4
Missing values 8 2.5 6 2.5 2 2.3
Eating habits > 4 meals per day 70 21.5 54 22.7 16 11.4
≤4 meals per day 253 77.6 183 76.9 70 86.4
Missing values 3 0.9 1 0.4 2 2.3
BMI before escape Mean (SD) 25.8 (4.6) 25.4 (4.0) 26.9 (5.8)
Missing values 53 16.3 34 14.3 19 21.6
BMI upon arrival Mean (SD) 24.8 (4.7) 24.5 (4.2) 25.8 (5.8)
Missing values 30 9.2 19 8.0 11 12.5
BMI since arrival Mean (SD) 25.9 (4.8) 25.2 (4.0) 28.1 (6.2)
Missing values 14 4.3 8 3.4 6 6.8
Waist-to-hip ratio since arrival Mean (SD) 0.90 (0.1) 0.91 (0.1) 0.87 (0.1)
Missing values 15 4.6 9 3.8 6 6.8
Abdominal obesity Yes 182 55.8 130 54.6 52 59.1
Missing values 15 4.6 9 3.8 6 6.8
Health conditions (self-report) Depression 47 14.4 34 14.3 13 14.8
Missing values 5 1.5 5 2.1 0 0.0
Diabetes mellitus (type II) 12 3.7 6 2.5 6 6.8
Missing values 4 1.2 4 1.7 0 0.0
Dyslipidemia 16 4.9 11 4.6 5 5.7
Missing values 7 2.2 5 2.1 2 2.3
Hypertension 21 6.4 16 6.7 5 5.7
Missing values 5 1.5 5 2.1 0 0.0
  1. n: quantity; %: proportion; SD: standard deviation
  2. a Algeria (8.7%), Eritrea (13.0%), Nigeria (26.1%), Somalia (17.4%), Ghana (13.0%), Guinea (4.4%), Morocco (8.7%), Egypt (8.7%); b Azerbaijan (3.3%), Bangladesh (20.0%), Georgia (3.3%), India (3.3%), Lebanon (10.0%), Pakistan (16.7%), Palestine (6.7%), Russia (6.7%), Tajikistan (3.3%), Turkey (10.0%), stateless (16.7%); c consumption of one or two alcoholic beverages (< 24 g for men and < 12 g pure alcohol for women per day) on at least one day in a month; d consumption of three or four alcoholic beverages (24-60 g for men and 12-40 g pure alcohol for women per day) on at least one day in a month; e consumption of five or more alcoholic beverages (more than 60 g for men and 40 g pure alcohol for women per day) on at least one day in a month