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Table 1 Baseline demographic information of the study participantsa

From: Efficacy of transdermal delivery of liposomal micronutrients through body oil massage on neurodevelopmental and micronutrient deficiency status in infants: results of a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial

  LMF oil
(n = 222)
Placebo oil
(n = 222)
Age in days$ 35.59 ± 5.86 37.51 ± 6.14
Sex, number of females 97(43.69) 107(48.20)
Weight in kgb 3.97 ± 0.52 3.88 ± 0.49
Length in cm 54.60 ± 2.15 54.47 ± 2.37
Head circumference in cm$ 35.95 ± 1.48 35.88 ± 1.46
Children with low birth weightc 29(13.06) 37(16.66)
Mode of delivery
Vaginal 146(65.77) 146(65.77)
Caesarean section 76(34.23) 76(34.23)
Exclusively breastfed 212(95.50) 215(96.85)
Birth order
First 65(29.28) 73(32.43)
Second 88(39.64) 87(39.19)
Third 45(20.27) 49(22.07)
Fourth 20(09.01) 9(4.05)
Fifth or more 4(1.80) 5(2.25)
Maternal age in years$ 24.30 ± 3.79 24.34 ± 3.79
Maternal education
Illiterate 4(1.8) 9(4.05)
Primary education 46(20.72) 52(23.42)
Secondary education 59(26.58) 50(22.52)
Higher secondary education 76(34.23) 58(26.13)
Graduate 31(13.96) 48(21.17)
Postgraduate 6(2.7) 6(2.7)
Maternal occupation
Homemaker 208(93.69) 208(93.24)
Agriculture 5(2.25) 6(2.70)
Student 1(0.45)
Industry 3(1.35)
Others 9(4.05) 5(2.25)
  1. Unpaired t-test used for comparison of normally distributed variables; Pearson chi2 for frequencies; a Values expressed as mean+/−SD for continuous data and n(%) for categorical data; bp = 0.03; $Variables not normally distributed; Kolmogorov Smirnoff test used for comparison; c- birth weight < 2.5 kg, LMF oil Liposomal encapsulated micronutrient fortified oil