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Table 3 Effect of lipid-based nutrient supplements on change in the glucose and insulin markers among 268 HIV patients after 3 months of antiretroviral therapy initiation

From: Effects of nutritional supplementation on glucose metabolism and insulin function among people with HIV initiating ART

  Non-supplemented (reference, n = 89) Supplemented (n = 179) Difference  
  Adjusted means (95% CI) Adjusted means (95% CI) B (95% CI) P value
Glycated hemoglobin, mmol/mol 34.0 (32.2; 35.7) 35.9 (34.8; 37.1) 2.0 (−0.1; 4.1) 0.067
Plasma-glucose, mmol/l
 Fasting 5.7 (5.5; 5.8) 5.8 (5.7; 5.9) 0.1 (−0.04; 0.3) 0.145
 30 min 7.4 (7.2; 7.7) 7.9 (7.7; 8.1) 0.5 (0.2; 0.8) 0.003
 2 h 6.3 (6.0; 6.6) 6.7 (6.5; 6.9) 0.4 (0.03; 0.8) 0.035
  Adjusted geometric means (95% CI) Adjusted geometric means (95% CI) 10B (95% CI) P value
Fasting plasma-insulin, μIU/mla 3.3 (2.7; 4.1) 5.2 (4.4; 6.4) 1.57 (1.20;2.05) 0.001
HOMA-Ba 31.2 (25.0; 39.0) 48.2 (41.1; 56.4) 1.54 (1.17; 2.03) 0.002
HOMA-IRa 0.80 (0.64; 1.00) 1.31 (1.12; 1.54) 1.64 (1.25;2.15) < 0.001
  1. Beta estimates are presented after a linear regression with 95% confidence interval adjusted for age, sex, educational status and baseline status of outcome variables
  2. Data available: HbA1c: 227 at baseline and 192 at 3 months. Fasting: 264 at baseline and 249 at 3 months. 30 m-PG: 264 at baseline and 248 at 3 months. 2 h-PG: 265 at baseline and 247 at 3 months. Plasma fasting insulin: 265 at baseline and 246 at 3 months
  3. HOMA-B: 262 at baseline and 246 at 3 months. HOMA-IR: 263 at baseline and 246 at 3 months
  4. Abbreviations: CI Confidence interval, HIV Human immunodeficiency virus, HOMA-B Homeostatic model assessment of beat cell function and HOMA-IR Insulin resistance
  5. aAdjusted means and differences are based on log10-transformed variables. Hence, the means presented are therefore geometric means and the differences should be interpreted as ratios