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Table 1 Chi-square test for socio-demographic characteristics and location of study respondents

From: Non-attitudinal and non-knowledge based factors constrain households from translating good nutritional knowledge and attitude to achieve the WHO recommended minimum intake level for fruits and vegetables in a developing country setting: evidence from Gulu district, Uganda

Socio- demographic variables Location of residence
Rural (n = 200) Urban (n = 200) X2 P value*
N % N %   
Sex of the respondent      0.296 0.586
 Male 8.0 4.0 6.0 3.0   
 Female 192 96 194 97.0   
Marital status of the respondent      27.615 0.000
 Single 18 9.0 30 15.0   
 Married 122 61.0 146 73.0   
 Separated 19 9.5 16 8.0   
 Widowed 41 20.5 8 4.0   
Occupation of household head      25.570 0.019
 Not Employed 40 20.0 34 17.0   
 Employed (Salaried) 18 9.0 27 13.5   
 Small Scale Trading 46 23.0 81 40.5   
 Casual Labor 7 3.5 18 9.0   
 Farming 84 42.0 21 10.5   
 Others 5 2.5 19 9.5   
Attendance of school by the respondent      3.735 0.053
 No 22 11.0 16.0 8.0   
 Yes 178 89.0 184 92.0   
Education level of the respondent      32.581 0.013
 No formal education 15 7.5 9.0 4.5   
 Primary 113 56.5 65 32.5   
 Secondary 57 28.5 108 54.0   
 Post secondary 14 7.5 18 9.0   
Attendance of health education by the respondent      0.795 0.375
 No 57 28.5 37 18.5   
 Yes 143 71.5 163 81.5   
Number of times the respondent attended health education      5.553 0.135
 Never 57 28.5 37 18.5   
 Once 13 6.5 23 11.5   
 Twice 17 8.5 26 13.0   
 More than twice 113 56.5 114 57.0   
Attendance ofnutrition education by the respondent      0.015 0.902
 No 75 37.5 63 31.5   
 Yes 125 62.5 137 68.5   
Frequency of attendance of nutrition education by the respondent      10.974 0.012
 Never 75 37.5 63 31.5   
 Once 14 7.0 13 6.5   
 Twice 23 11.5 20 10.0   
 More than twice 88 44.0 104 52.0   
Main source of household income      48.871 0.000
 Formal employment 22 11.0 29 14.5   
 Casual labor 15 7.5 19 9.5   
 Small scale business 70 35.0 105 52.5   
 Sale of agricultural produce 86 43.0 30 15.0   
 Farming 5.0 2.5 3.0 1.5   
 Others 2.0 1.0 14 7.0   
How food is obtained in the household      149.862 0.000
 Farming 152 76.0 32 16   
 Purchase 46 23.0 165 82.5   
 Food aid 1.0 0.5 1.0 0.5   
 Transfers from friends 1.0 0.5 2.0 1.0   
Responsibility of providing food for the household      41.256 0.000
 Father 44 22 78 39   
 Mother 97 48.5 42 21   
 Both father and mother 43 21.5 70 35   
 Relatives 16 8.0 10 5.0   
Decision on the type of food to eat in the household      8.483 0.132
 Husband 9.0 4.5 7.0 3.5   
 Wife 155 77.5 148 74   
 Both wife and husband 22 11 34 17   
 Children 2 1.0 6.0 3.0   
 Grandmother 12 6.0 5.0 2.5   
Decision on how family income is used      33.669 0.000
 Husband 27 13.5 59 29.5   
 Wife 84 42 39 19.5   
 Both wife and husband 77 38.5 96 48   
 Grandmother 12 6.0 6.0 3.0   
  1. *Statistical significance is based on Bonferroni correction value of 0.004