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Table 5 Result of the log-binomial model to identify risk factors for low birth weight in Tigray regional state, Ethiopia, 2020

From: Effect of under-nutrition during pregnancy on low birth weight in Tigray regional state, Ethiopia; a prospective cohort study

Variables Low birth weight CRR (95%CI) ARR (95%CI)
Yes (%) No (%)
Maternal height ≤1.45 m 3 (4.3) 41 (9.5) 0.15 (0.12, 1.8) 0.56 (0.19,1.64)
>1.45 m (ref.) 67 (95.7) 389 (90.5) 1 1
Maternal educational status* Illiterate 18 (25.7) 109 (25.3) 0.06 (0.57,1.99) 1.8 (1.01, 3.3)*
Elementary school 16 (22.9) 109 (25.3) 0.96 (0.5,1.8) 1.89 (0.89,4.04)
High school 20 (28.6) 108 (25.1) 1.17 (0.64,2.5) 1.86 (0.98,3.44)
Above high school (ref.) 16 (22.9) 104 (24.2) 1 1
Maternal occupational status Civil servant 25 (35.7) 84 (20) 2.63 (1.55,4.45) 2.69 (1.56,4.68)
Farmer/daily worker 5 (7.1) 45 (10.7) 1.15 (0.46,2.88) 1.08 (0.43,2.69)
Own business 18 (25.7) 60 (14.3) 2.64 (1.49,4.67) 1.75 (0.98,2.32)
Housewife (ref.) 22 (31.4) 230 (54.9) 1 1
Monthly family income** < 50 US Dollar 23 (32.9) 99 (23) 1.09 (0.68,1.76) 1.6 (1.07,2.2)**
50–167 US Dollar 13 (18.6) 168 (39.1) 0.42 (0.23,0.76) 0.47 (0.28, 0.78)
> 167 US Dollar (ref.) 34 (48.6) 163 (37.9) 1 1
Family size ≤4 50 (71.4) 267 (62.1) 1.44 (0.89,2.35) 1.44 (0.88,2.34)
> 4 (ref.) 20 (28.6) 163 (37.9) 1 1
Utilization of latrine* Yes 34 (48.6) 319 (75.6) 0.37 (0.24,0.57) 0.47 (0.28, 0.78)*
No (ref.) 36 (51.4) 103 (24.4) 1 1
Fasting during pregnancy during a fasting period Yes 27 (38.6) 195 (45.3) 0.79 (0.5,1.23) 1.12 (0.71,1.75)
No (ref.) 43 (61.4) 235 (54.7) 1 1
Presence of diseases Yes 2 (2.9%) 58 (13.5) 0.22 (0.05,0.86) 0.25 (0.06,0.98)
No (ref.) 68 (97.1) 372 (86.5) 1 1
DDS* Low (< 5) 35 (50) 226 (52.6) 0.92 (0.59,1.4) 1.9 (1.05,2.61)*
Adequate (≥5) (ref.) 35 (50) 204 (47.4) 1 1
Alcohol drinking during pregnancy Yes 6 (8.6) 84 (19.5) 0.43 (0.19,0.96) 0.42 (0.18,0.95)
No (ref.) 64 (91.4) 346 (80.5) 1 1
Total gestational weight gain Low 51 (72.9) 262 (60.9) 1.6 (0.98,2.6) 1.45 (0.9,2.32)
Adequate (ref.) 19 (27.1) 168 (39.1) 1 1
  1. * < 0.05, ** < 0.01, CRR: Crude Risk Ratio, ARR: Adjusted Risk Ratio, CI: Confidence Interval, ref.: reference category