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Table 4 Plasma dietary α-tocopherol, carotenoids and polyphenols

From: Bilberry/red grape juice decreases plasma biomarkers of inflammation and tissue damage in aged men with subjective memory impairment –a randomized clinical trial

  Bilberry/red grape juice (n = 30) Placebo-juice (n = 30)  
Baseline Post-intervention Baseline Post intervention pMW(Change)
α-tocopherol (μM) 31.4 (29.0–35.6) 30.0 (27.0–32.4) 30.5 (27.1–32.2) 28.8 (25.7–31.2) 0.38
Carotenoids
 lutein (μM) 0.24 (0.21–0.30) 0.22 (0.19–0.30) 0.26 (0.22–0.28) 0.27 (0.20–0.31) 0.04*
 zeaxanthin (μM) 0.06 (0.05–0.08) 0.61 (0.04–0.07) 0.06 (0.06–0.08) 0.06 (0.05–0.07) 0.52
 β-cryp (μM) 0.30 (0.23–0.38) 0.16 (0.12–0.26) 0.26 (0.20–0.38) 0.13 (0.09–0.20) 0.57
 α-caroten (μM) 0.09 (0.52–0.13) 0.07 (0.05–0.10) 0.08 (0.05–0.12) 0.08 (0.04–0.09) 0.94
 β-caroten (μM) 0.49 (0.33–0.73) 0.37 (0.30–0.50) 0.39 (0.30–0.73) 0.35 (0.26–0.62) 0.80
 lycopen (μM) 0.55 (0.43–0.68) 0.53 (0.39–0.65) 0.57 (0.43–0.66) 0.51 (0.35–0.58) 0.21
Polyphenols
 Quercetin (nmol/L) 10.2 (5.2–14.8) 18.8 (11.6–24.8) 13.7 (8.1.-26.1) 10.2 (7.1–20.1) 0.27
 3HPAA (nmol/L) 133.0 (85.1–178.8) 219.0 (148.0–268.7) 173.7 (107.3–244.7) 118.1 (68.8–153.2) < 0.01**
 33HPPA (nmol/L) 257.1 (104.0–569.0) 166.6 (75.9–266.2) 230.0 (89.7–350.2) 198.5 (107.1–437.1) 0.07
 Vanillic acid (nmol/L) 41.2 (32.9–47.5) 44.3 (34.8–66.2) 41.5 (31.4–65.8) 44.4 (30.7–52.8) 0.03*
 Protocatechuic acid (nmol/L) 30.8 (26.4–33.1) 42.0 (33.5–48.7) 36.7 (31.23–45.71) 30.2 (26.4–38.36) < 0.01**
 HVA (nmol/L) 65.8 (60.4–80.0) 89.7 (63.0–104.5) 61.0 (54.4–92.3) 63.9 (55.9–88.2 0.08
 DOPAC (nmol/L) 98.7 (87.8–118.0) 125.3 (99.0–138.6) 105.1 (94.7–132.5) 112.3 (107.5–134.7) 0.28
 Gallic acid (nmol/L) 4.3 (3.4–6.3) 4.5 (3.3–5.3) 5.3 (3.7–6.7) 4.8 (2.9–6.2) 0.46
 DHCA (nmol/L) 24.1 (16.9–45.0) 26.7 (16.7–43.4) 40.3 (17.6–51.8) 26.7 (21.8–48.0) 0.81
 p-Coumaric acid (nmol/L) 2.2 (1.0–5.5) 4.7 (2.8–8.0) 2.7 (1.3–5.9) 3.5 (2.6–5.0) < 0.01**
 Caffeic acid (nmol/L) 33.5 (20.6–38.2) 33.9 (24.4–46.8) 34.6 (24.4–55.6) 29.1 (17.1–45.9) 0.10
 Ferulic acid (nmol/L) 23.6 (20.3–29.1) 22.0 (17.4–27.8) 24.5 (17.0–45.6) 18.1 (14.9–25.9) 0.18
 Enterolactone (nmol/L) 17.5 (13.6–26.3) 25.6 (17.45–39.1) 30.7 (20.8–50.1) 30.7 (17.2–41.7) 0.06
 Hippuric acid (nmol/L) 1674 (1185–2186) 2503.7 (1650–4442) 1354 (943–2380) 1367 (855–2504) 0.05*
 Paraxanthine (μmol/L) 3.0 (1.8–4.6) 2.9 (2.0–5.6) 3.8 (2.0–5.3) 4.2 (2.7–6.2) 0.14
  1. Data are presented as baseline median or median to post-intervention with corresponding 95%CL (lower, upper). pMW(change) was obtained comparing the groups with regards to change using Mann Whitney test. 33HPPA 3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-propionic acid, 3HPAA 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, HVA Homovanillic acid/4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid, DOPAC 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, DHCA Dihydrocaffeic acid, PA Protocatechuic acid. **Paraxanthine is a methylxanthine. *p ≤ 0.05, **p < 0.001