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Table 2 Comparison of diet between the barley groups

From: Relationships between barley consumption and gut microbiome characteristics in a healthy Japanese population: a cross-sectional study

  Low barley (n = 47) High barley (n = 47)  
Variable 0–3.5 g/1000 kcal a 3.5–28 g/1000 kcal a P b
Daily Nutrition
 Energy (kcal) 1693 ± 456 1765 ± 562 0.50
 Protein (g/1000 kcal) 35 ± 6 34 ± 6 0.58
 Fat (g/1000 kcal) 30 ± 6 30 ± 6 0.85
 Carbohydrate (g/1000 kcal) 130 ± 20 129 ± 18 0.75
 Dietary fiber (g/1000 kcal) 4.9 ± 1.3 6.1 ± 1.7 < 0.001
 Na (mg/1000 kcal) 3608 ± 948 3871 ± 1094 0.22
Dietary habits (g/1000 kcal)
 Barley 1.5 ± 1.2 7.7 ± 4.8 < 0.001
 Cereal 213 ± 55 236 ± 58 0.048
 Legume 20 ± 15 27 ± 20 0.06
 Green vegetable 37 ± 23 44 ± 32 0.2537
 Other vegetable 62 ± 29 72 ± 45 0.2001
 Fruit 36 ± 32 35 ± 30 0.87
 Fish 32 ± 15 31 ± 16 0.74
 Sugar and sweetener 3.9 ± 3.7 2.4 ± 2.4 0.03
 Confectionery 26 ± 20 25 ± 17 0.81
 Beverage 439 ± 271 335 ± 226 0.047
  1. Data are shown as means ± SD
  2. Range of barley consumption
  3. b Student’s t-test