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Table 2 Analysis of variance for univariate and adjusted associations of each food behaviour goal (FBG) with 3-month HEI-C, adjusted for baseline HEI-C

From: Key process features of personalized diet counselling in metabolic syndrome: secondary analysis of feasibility study in primary care

FBG variable name Categories (all 0,1 except as indicated) Univariate F
p valuea
Adjusted F
p valueb
Estimated Marginal Mean HEI-C at 3 Months – adjusted analysis
Decreased HEI-C
 Balanced meals 0, 1–2,>2c 0.000 < 0.001 More than 2 mentions associated with lowest HEI score (66 points), no mentions and 1–2 mentions had similar and higher HEI scores (72–73 points).
 Decrease alcohol   0.020 0.027 Mention associated with lower HEI score (63 points) compared to no mention (69 points).
Increased HEI-C
 Poultry more than red meat   0.001 0.001 Mention associated with higher HEI score (76 points) compared to no mention (68 points).
 Increase plant protein   0.000 < 0.001 Mention associated with higher HEI score (73 points) compared to no mention (66 points).
 Increase fish   0.000 < 0.001 Mention associated with higher HEI score (72 points) compared to no mention (66 points).
 Eating breakfast   0.006 0.007 Mention associated with higher HEI score (72 points) compared to no mention (66 points).
 Increase milk and alternatives   0.008 0.009 Mention associated with higher HEI score (71 points) compared to no mention (67 points).
 Choosing healthier fats   0.019 0.013 Mention associated with higher HEI score (71 points) compared to no mention (67 points).
 Increase olive oil   0.022 0.036 Mention associated with higher HEI score (72 points) compared to no mention (68 points).
 Increase nuts   0.036 0.030 Mention associated with higher HEI score (70 points) compared to no mention (67 points).
 Increase fruits and Vegetables 0, 1–2,>2d 0.039 0.023 Any mention associated with higher HEI score (70 points) compared to no mention (65 points).
 Healthier snacks   0.045 0.028 Mention associated with higher HEI score (70 points) compared to no mention (67 points).
No Difference
 Increase fibre   0.077 0.053  
 Decrease total fat   0.511 0.470  
 Decrease sodium   0.263 0.229  
 Regular meal pattern   0.357 0.424  
 Healthier choices when eating out   0.414 0.414  
 Decrease calories   0.691 0.873  
 Mindful eating approaches   0.484 0.751  
 Decrease intake of added sugars   0.842 0.804  
 Decrease glycemic index   0.874 0.828  
 Plant sterols Not analyzed    
 Increase wine Not analyzed    
 Carbohydrate counting Not analyzed    
  1. a Levene’s test of equality of error variance of the dependent variable was p > 0.05 for all univariate analyses
  2. bAdjusted for sex, age, BMI, Baseline percentile VO2 max, Baseline PROCAM score, spouse yn
  3. cBalanced meals recoded as: 0 = not mentioned (n = 34); 1 = mentioned 1–2 times in 3 months (n = 63); 2 = mentioned more than twice (n = 158)
  4. dIncreased fruits and vegetables recoded as: 0 = not mentioned (n = 80); 1 = mentioned 1–2 times in 3 months (n = 66); 2 = mentioned more than twice (n = 109)