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Table 3 Main findings of the included studies

From: Adherence to Mediterranean diet associated with health-related quality of life in children and adolescents: a systematic review

Study MD adherence score HRQoL score HRQoL dimensions score Correlation
β (95% CI) p value
Krece Plus vs. KIDSCREEN-10
 Delgado-Floody et al., 2020 [20] NR NR NR For general score: NR For score by ethnicity Ethnic ascendant: 0.12 (0.04; 0.25) Nonethnic ascendant: 0.01 (-0.07; 0.09) Ethnic ascendant: 0.063 Nonethnic ascendant: 0.763
KIDMED vs. KIDSCREEN-27
 Costarelli et al., 2012 [14] 6.3 (SD, 2.4) 50.1 (SD, 7.5) 1. Physical well-being: 50.3 (SD, 9.8)
2. Psychological well-being: 50 (SD, 10.0)
3. Autonomy and relationship with parents: 50.05 (SD, 10.01)
4. Social relationships and peer pressure: 50 (SD, 9.8)
5. Peers and school environment: 50.3 (SD, 9.8)
For general score: 0.21  < 0.001
 Muros et al., 2016 [15] 7.87 (SD, 2.08) 52.96 (SD, 8.21) NR For general score: 0.142  < 0.01
 Zervaki et al., 2017 [16] 5.1 (SD, 1.8) 50 (SD, 10) 1. Physical well-being: 50.3 (SD, 9.9)
2. Psychological well-being: 49.9 (SD, 10.1)
3. Autonomy and relationship with parents: 50 (SD, 10)
4. Social relationships and peer pressure: 50.1 (SD, 9.8)
5. Peers and school environment: 50 (SD, 9.9)
For general score: 0.13 0.049
 Rodriguez-Rosado et al., 2020 [21] Male: 6.20 (SD, 2.43)
Female: 6.32 (SD, 2.44)
Male: 82.1 (SD, 11.6)
Female: 82.42 (SD, 10.88)
Male:
1. Physical well-being: 85.3 (SD, 14.3)
2. Psychological well-being: 83.8 (SD, 11.7)
3. Autonomy and relationship with parents: 75.6 (SD, 18.1)
4. Social relationships and peer pressure: 85.8 (SD, 19.4)
5. Peers and school environment: 84.1 (SD, 13.2)
Female:
1. Physical well-being: 83.5 (SD, 15.1)
2. Psychological well-being: 83.2 (SD, 10.6)
3. Autonomy and relationship with parents: 72.4 (SD, 15.4)
4. Social relationships and peer pressure: 88.1 (SD, 13.6)
5. Peers and school environment: 88.8 (SD, 13.6)
For general score: 0.125
For score by dimensions
1. General health: NR
2. Physical well-being: 0.179
3. Psychological well-being: 0.121
4. Autonomy and relationship with parents: 0.49
5. Social relationships and peer pressure: 0.98
6. Peers and school environment: 0.209
General score: 0.130
1. General health: NR
2. Physical well-being: 0.035
3. Psychological well-being: 0.173
4. Autonomy and relationship with parents: 0.595
5. Social relationships and peer pressure: 0.264
6. Peers and school environment: 0.012
 Caamaño-Navarrete et al., 2021 [22] 6.11 (SD, 2.34) 37.37 (SD, 4.77) NR For general score: 0.11 (0.00; 0.22) 0.059
 Mitri et al., 2021 [23] Low (≤ 3): 233 (29.2%) Moderate (4–7): 459 (57.5%) Optimal (≥ 8): 106 (13.3%) 45.81 (SD, 6) 1. Physical well-being: 44.85 (SD, 8.44)
2. Psychological well-being: 37.38 (SD, 4.41)
3. Autonomy and relationship with parents: 49.12 (SD, 9.58)
4. Social relationships and peer pressure: 48.91 (SD, 11.51)
5. Peers and school environment: 48.72 (SD, 11.56)
For general score: -0.069 0.093
KIDMED vs. KIDSCREEN-10
 Evaristo et al., 2018 [17] 7.1 (SD, 2.1) 39.1 (SD, 5.6) NR For general score: 0.259 (0.096; 0.421) 0.002
 Esteban-Gonzalo et al., 2019* [18] Primary school: Male: 5.9 (SD, 2.4) Female: 6.5 (SD, 2.2) Secondary school: Male: 6.6 (SD, 2.3) Female: 6.4 (SD, 2.2) Primary school: Male: 41.5 (SD, 4.5) Female: 42.0 (SD, 5.0) Secondary school: Male: 39.6 (SD, 5.2) Female: 38.1 (SD, 5.3) NR Primary school: Male: 0.11 (-0.13; 0.36) Female: 0.08 (-0.19; 0.37) Secondary school:
Male: 0.46 (0.25; 0.66) Female: 0.41 (0.21; 0.61)
Primary school: Male: 0.361 Female: 0.547 Secondary school: Male: < 0.001 Female: < 0.001
KIDMED vs. KIDSCREEN-52
 Ferrer-Cascales et al., 2019 [19] NR NR 1. Physical well-being: 18.05 (SD, 3.9)
2. Psychological well-being: 23.33 (SD, 4.8)
3. Mood and emotions: 26.79 (SD, 5.8)
4. Self-perception: 19.49 (SD, 3.5)
5. Autonomy: 19.01 (SD, 4.24)
6. Parent relations and home life: 24.66 (SD, 4.88)
7. Financial resources: 11.9 (SD, 2.86)
8. Social support and peers: 25.05 (SD, 4.05)
9. School environment: 21.39 (SD, 4.53)
10. Social acceptance: 13.19 (SD, 2.23)
For general score: NR
For score by dimensions
1. Physical well-being: 0.812
2. Psychological well-being: 1.28
3. Mood and emotions: 1.62
4. Self-perception: 0.603
5. Autonomy: 1.06
6. Parent relations and home life: 1.23
7. Financial resources: 0.433
8. Social support and peers: 0.756
9. School environment: 0.934
10. Social acceptance: 0.212
1. Physical well-being: 0.00001
2. Psychological well-being: 0.00001
3. Mood and emotions: 0.00001
4. Self-perception: 0.00001
5. Autonomy: 0.00001
6. Parent relations and home life: 0.00001
7. Financial resources: 0.00001
8. Social support and peers: 0.00001
9. School environment: 0.00001
10. Social acceptance: 0.00001
KIDMED vs. PedsQL
 Mozzillo et al., 2021 [24] 5 (IQR:3; 7) 75 (IQR: 65; 83) 1. Physical functioning: 75 (IQR: 66; 84)
2. Emotional functioning: 70 (IQR: 55; 80)
3. Social functioning: 85 (IQR: 70; 95)
4. School functioning: 70 (IQR: 55; 85)
For general score
Odds ratio: 0.878 (0.804; 0.959)
0.004
  1. Data are presented as mean (SD) or median (IQR)
  2. *Originally a longitudinal study, it was considered the baseline cross-sectional cohort
  3. MD (Mediterranean diet), HRQoL (Health-Related Quality of Life), NR (no report), CI (confidence interval)