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Table 1 Spearman and partial correlation between food groups and three variables defined by BMI (obesity, overweight and mean BMI)

From: Meat consumption providing a surplus energy in modern diet contributes to obesity prevalence: an ecological analysis

Variables Spearman Partial
BMI ≥ 30 BMI ≥ 25 BMI mean BMI ≥ 30 BMI ≥ 25 BMI mean
Food group       
 Meat, total 0.666*** 0.800*** 0.656*** 0.356*** 0.421*** 0.380***
 Meat, total, all variable controlleda - - - 0.357*** 0.415*** 0.339***
 Fats (plant oil + animal fat) 0.517*** 0.728*** 0.483*** 0.077 0.166 −0.005
 Fruits, total 0.467*** 0.521*** 0.461*** 0.173 0.197* 0.258**
 Fibers (vegetables + pulses) 0.315*** 0.516*** 0.330*** −0.197* −0.035 −0.107
 Starch (cereals + starchy root) −0.205** −0.228** -.318*** 0.078 −0.011 −0.085
Macronutrient       
 Meat protein 0.673*** 0.793*** 0.660*** 0.392*** 0.431*** 0.400***
 Meat protein, all variable controlledb - - - 0.316*** 0.183* 0.299***
 Animal protein, excluding meat protein 0.522*** 0.741*** 0.516*** 0.017 0.214* 0.029
 Plant protein, total −0.094 −0.063 −0.094 −0.227* −0.333*** −0.248*
 Animal fats, total 0.581*** 0.803*** 0.574*** 0.196* 0.379*** 0.222*
 Plant fats, total 0.440*** 0.570*** 0.371*** 0.252* 0.230** 0.201*
 Carbohydrates 0.230** 0.202** 0.208** −0.193* −0.324*** −0.166
Potential confounder       
 Calories, total 0.623*** 0.805*** 0.563*** - - -
 GDP PPP 0.642*** 0.808*** 0.610*** - - -
 Physical Inactivity 0.438*** 0.384*** 0.460*** - - -
  1. Spearman’s rho of correlation and partial correlation are reported. Numbers of countries (df) included in the two correlation analysis are 161–170 and 115–123 respectively. * P < 0.05, **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001
  2. BMI ≥ 30 and BMI ≥ 25 are percentages of defined population with a body mass index (BMI) of no less than 30 kg/m2 and 25 kg/m2 respectively. BMI mean is the mean body mass index (BMI) in kg/m2 of defined population
  3. Availabilities of food types (meat, fats, fruits, fibers and starch) and macronutrients (meat protein, animal protein (excl. meat protein), plant protein, animal fats, plant fats and carbohydrates) are expressed in g/capita/day
  4. Total calories is in kcal/capita/day. GDP PPP is in per capita USD per year. Physical inactivity is defined as the percent of defined population attaining less than 150 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity per week, or less than 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity physical activity per week, or equivalent
  5. a Partial analysis with controlling for fats (plant oil + animal fat), Fruits, total (total), Fibers (vegetables + pulses) and Starch (cereals + starchy root) and the three potential confounders, calories, GDP PPP and physical activity
  6. b Partial analysis with controlling for Animal protein (excluding meat protein), Plant protein (total), Animal fats (total), Plant fats (total) and Carbohydrate energy and the three potential confounders, calories, GDP PPP and physical activity