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Table 1 Socioeconomic characteristics of participant households, by area

From: Nutritional characterisation of low-income households of Nairobi: socioeconomic, livestock and gender considerations and predictors of malnutrition from a cross-sectional survey

  Dagoretti (n = 100) Korogocho (n = 105) N
Income [%]    
 Less than 1,000 KES (<11.5$) 3.0 9.5***  
 1,001–5,000 KES (11.5–58$) 33.0 60.0 205
 5,001–10,000 KES (58–116$) 40.0 25.7  
 10,001–20,000 KES (116–231.5$) 24.0 4.8  
Income expenditure decision [%]    
 Household male 18.6 23.8  
 Household female 18.6 26.7 202
 Joint (male and female) 62.8 49.5  
Female contribution to income [%]    
 0 female 30.7 42.9 193
 1 female 58.0 44.8  
 2–3 female 11.3 12.3  
HH head sex [%]    
 Female 43.1 56.8 205
HH head age [Mean (SD)] 34.2 (9.1) 30.9 (9.0)* 184
HH head religion [%]    
 Christian 98.0 92.4 205
 Muslim 2.0 7.6  
HH head education [%]    
 Never went to school 2.5 1.3*  
 Primary school 42.5 61.5 160
 Secondary school 41.3 34.6  
 College 13.8 2.6  
HH head occupation [%]    
 Unemployed 2.4 0.0**  
 Farm related 5.9 1.2  
 Labourer 38.8 65.9 167
 Private enterprise 29.4 14.6  
 Civil servant 8.2 1.2  
 Own business 15.3 17.1  
Maternal status [%]    
 Married 85.0 71.4* 205
 Single 10.0 21.9  
 Widowed/Divorced/Separated 5.0 6.7  
Maternal education [%]    
 None 3.0 1.0*** 205
 Primary 49.0 78.1  
 Secondary and above 48.0 21.0  
Maternal occupation [%]    
 No 63.0 51.4* 205
 Yes 37.0 48.6  
# HH members [Mean (SD)] 4.7 (1.9) 4.9 (2.0) 199
Proportion of female members (#females/#members) [Mean (SD)] 0.5 (0.2) 0.5 (0.2) 199
# HH children (<15y) [Mean (SD)] 2.3 (1.4) 2.6 (1.5) 200
Land ownership [%]    
 No land 52.6 91.3*** 200
 0–5000 m2 28.9 3.9  
 >5000 m2 18.5 3.9  
Land usage [%]    
 No land 89.6 96.2 200
 0–5000 m2 2.1 2.9  
 >5000 m2 8.3 1.0  
Home owned [%] 17.0 12.4 205
# rooms [%]    
 1 room 60.0 76.7* 202
 2–3 rooms 32.3 21.4  
 >3 rooms 7.1 1.9  
Walls material [%]    
 Iron sheets 100.0 63.8*** 205
 Earth/mud 0.0 36.2  
Quality of housing score [%]    
 Poor (0–10) 82.8 80.3*** 202
 Moderate (11–20) 17.2 9.7  
 Good (21–30) 0 0  
Domestic asset index [%]    
 0–25 70.0 97.2***  
 25–50 15.0 1.0 205
 50–75 10.0 0.0  
 75–100 4.0 1.0  
 >100 1.0 1.0  
Men domestic asset index [Md (Q1–Q3)] 5.0 (2.9–24.3) 2.9 (0.8–5.0)*** 205
Women domestic asset index [Md (Q1-Q3)] 5.7 (3.0–20.4) 3.4 (2.0–5.8)*** 205
Gender asset disparity [Md (Q1-Q3)] (women/total domestic asset index) 0.8 (0.5–0.9) 0.7 (0.5–1.0) 204
Animal ownership [%]a 53.0 22.9*** 205
Livestock contribution to HH asset [Md (Q1-Q3)] (livestock/total assets) 0.0 (0.0–0.7) 0.0 (0.0–0.0)*** 204
Livestock contribution to women asset [Md (Q1-Q3)] (women livestock/total female assets) 0.0 (0.0–0.8) 0.0 (0.0–0.0)*** 196
Total livestock holding [%]b    
 0 TLU equivalents 54.0 87.6***  
 0.1–2 TLU equivalents 32.0 10.5 205
 2.1–4 TLU equivalents 13.0 1.0  
 >4 TLU equivalents 1.0 1.0  
Female livestock holding [%]b    
 0 TLU equivalents 63.0 90.5 205
 >0 TLU equivalents 37.0 9.52  
  1. The data were collected between 02–20/12/13 and 7–16/01/14 in Dagoretti, and between 21/01/14 and 21/02/14 in Korogocho
  2. HH household, KES Kenyan schillings, Md median, n sample size, Q1 quartile 25 %, Q3 quartile 75 %, SD standard deviation, TLU tropical livestock unit
  3. *p-value ≤0.05; **p-value ≤ 0.01; ***p-value ≤ 0.001
  4. aThis includes both livestock and non-livestock animals; bThe TLUs are calculated according to: 1.1 = camel; 1 = oxen, bull; 0.8 = local cow, horses; 0.6 = immature male calves; 0.5 = heifers, donkeys, mules; 0.2 = calves; 0.1 = sheep, goats; 0.01 = poultry