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Table 2 Nutritional indicators of participant children and women in poor households of Nairobi, by area

From: Nutritional characterisation of low-income households of Nairobi: socioeconomic, livestock and gender considerations and predictors of malnutrition from a cross-sectional survey

  CHILDREN 1–3 YEARS WOMEN REPRODUCTIVE AGE
  BREASTFEEDING Non-BREASTFEEDING NON-PREGNANT
  Dagoretti (n = 35) Korogocho (n = 42) Dagoretti (n = 65) Korogocho (n = 62) Dagoretti (n = 100) Korogocho (n = 104)
Age [months//years] [Mean (SD)] 17.8 (4.0) 18.5 (5.2) 25.4 (5.9) 25.9 (7.1) 26.7 (6.3) 25.6 (5.9)
Child female [%(CI)] 48.6 (31.5–65.6) 34.9 (20.2–49.5) 44.6 (32.3–56.9) 45.2 (32.6–57.8) - -
Child prematurity [%(CI)] 11.4 (0.6–22.3) 11.6 (1.8–21.5) 4.7 (–0.6–10.0) 8.2 (1.2–15.2) - -
HAZ [Z-scores] [Mean (SD)] −1.34 (1.07) −2.23*** (0.98) −1.70 (1.27) −1.90 (1.17) - -
WHZ [Z-scores] [Mean (SD)] −0.15 (1.34) −0.45 (1.17) 0.07 (1.46) −0.14 (1.09) - -
BMI [kg/m2] [Mean (SD)] - - - - 24.2 (4.6) 23.3 (3.8)
Haemoglobin [g/dL] [Mean (SD)] 10.1 (1.1) 10.2 (1.3) 10.2 (1.3) 9.8 (1.7) 12.7 (1.8) 12.8 (1.8)
Prevalence of: [%(CI)] Stunting (<−2Z-score) 25.7 (10.5–40.9) 53.5* (38.0–69.0) 38.5 (26.3–50.6) 45.2 (32.4–57.9)   
Wasting (<−2Z-score) 2.9 (−0.3–8.7) 11.6 (1.6–21.6) 1.5 (−0.2–4.6) 3.2 (−0.1–7.7)   
BMI <18.5 kg/m2 (underweight) - - - - 7.0 (1.9–12.1) 9.5 (3.8–15.2)
BMI >25 kg/m2 (overweight) - - - - 22.2 (13.9–30.6) 16.3 (9.1–23.6)
BMI >30 kg/m2 (obese) - - - - 12.1 (5.6–18.7) 7.7 (2.5–12.9)
Anaemia (<11 g/dL) // (<12 g/dL) [% (CI)] 85.7 (73.5–97.9) 65.1 (50.3–80.0)* 70.8 (59.4–82.1) 77.4 (66.7–88.1) 26.0 (17.3–34.7) 25.7 (17.2–34.2)
MDDa [% (CI)] 74.3 (59.4–89.2) 52.4*(36.8–67.9) 83.1 (73.8–92.4) 61.3** (48.9–73.6) - -
WDDSb [Mean (SD)] - - - - 4.4 (1.1) 4.1* (1.4)
Intake of: [Mean (SD)] Complementary food intake WHO 2002 recommended intakec (12–23 months) Total intake Total % at risk of inadequacyd Total intake Total% at risk of inadequacyd
Energy [kcal/d] 898.4 (572.9) 703.5 (399.0) - 1255.7 (441.2) 1009.9** (514.5) - 1928.7 (725.5) 1768.1 (822.4) -
Carbohydrates [g/d] 154.4 (104.3) 124.0 (69.4) - 206.2 (75.6) 171.8 (86.3)* - 320.5 (119.2) 295.8 (137.5) -
Protein [g/d] 22.4 (15.2) 17.6 (11.2) - 33.1 (14.2) 24.1***(15.4) 6.1 47.9 (22.0) 42.9 (25.5) 30.6
Fats [g/d] 22.7 (19.3) 17.0 (14.1) - 35.6 (17.6) 27.0** (19.5) - 53.1 (30.9) 48.5 (33.41) -
Calcium [mg/d] 265.8 (189.8) 222.4 (188.4) 500 481.6 (257.3) 343.7** (242.2) 52.4 597.9 (328.7) 461.4*** (299.4) 93.8
Iron [mg/d] 5.4 (4.1) 4.1 (2.9) 5.8 7.7 (3.9) 5.7** (4.0) 98.7 13.0 (7.5) 11.8 (7.4) 19.6
Zinc [mg/d] 3.2 (1.9) 2.4 (1.4) 4.1 4.8 (2.4) 3.3*** (1.9) 7.7 7.1 (3.1) 6.1* (3. 5) 61.3
Vitamin A [μg RE/d] 676.4 (825.0) 495.1 (687.2) 400 770.9 (675.4) 561.2 (629.5) 11.5 1575.3 (1620.3) 1409.7 (1516.9) 6.9
Vitamin B1 [mg/d] 0.5 (0.4) 0.4 (0.3) 0.5 0.7 (0.4) 0.5** (0.5) 22.6 1.1 (0.7) 1.0 (0.6) 32.3
Vitamin B2 [mg/d] 0.6 (0.5) 0.4 (0.3) 0.5 0.8 (0.4) 0.6*** (0.5) 18.8 1.0 (0.5) 0.9* (0.5) 49.7
Vitamin B3 [mg/d] 5.8 (3.8) 4.1 (3.9)* 6 7.4 (3.5) 5.3*** (3.2) 33.5 10.3 (4.4) 9.2 (5.3) 70.0
Vitamin B6 [mg/d] 0.9 (0.6) 0.7 (0.6) 0.5 1.2 (0.7) 0.8***(0.5) 8.9 1.5 (0.8) 1.3* (0.8) 22.9
Folate [μg DFE/d] 209.9 (232.6) 122.9* (116.7) 160 303.4 (244.7) 220.1*(206.8) 18.9 468.1 (411.7) 359.8*(317.5) 33.1
Vitamin B12 [μg/d] 5.2 (7.3) 4.8 (5.4) 0.9 7.4 (9.7) 4.8 (6.5) 8.8 14.9 (17.7) 16.9 (17.9) -
Vitamin C [mg/d] 55.7 (44.7) 57.3 (55.4) 30 80.9 (59.5) 70.9 (68.7) 3.2 131.5 (92.8) 123.4 (104.6) 6.3
  1. n for child intake = 204; n for women intake = 204
  2. The data were collected between 02–20/12/13 and 7–16/01/14 in Dagoretti, and between 21/01/14 and 21/02/14 in Korogocho
  3. BMI body mass index, CI confidence interval, DFE dietary folate equivalents, HAZ height-for-age Z-scores, n sample size, N/A not available, RE retinol equivalents, RNI recommended nutrient intake, SD standard deviation, WHZ weight-for-height Z-scores
  4. *p-value ≤0.05; **p-value ≤ 0.01; ***p-value ≤ 0.001
  5. aMinimum Dietary Diversity (MDD) for infants: proportion of children 6–23 months of age who received foods from 4 or more food groups (on a 7-point food group scale proposed by WHO for children 6–23 months, here used up to 36 months) [35]; bWomen’s Dietary Diversity Score (WDDS) for women: 9-point food group score proposed by FAO [34]; cAcording to WHO 2002 intakes [33]; dPrevalence of inadequacy calculated by IMAPP software, based on EAR cut-off point
  6. // difference in indicator or units for children and women