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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the participants from the COBRA study

From: Do dietary patterns explain high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among Pakistani urban adults? A cross-sectional study

Characteristics All (n = 1546) MEN (n = 846) WOMEN (n = 700) p-value*
Mean Age (years ± SD) 50.0 ± 10.2 50.4 ± 10.1 49.5 ± 10.5 0.74
Educational status- n (%)
 No formal education 478 (30.9) 166 (25.4) 312 (44.6) <0.01
 Primary -middle school 532 (34.4) 342 (40.4) 190 (27.1)  
 Secondary-Intermediate 354 (22.9) 215 (25.4) 139 (19.9)  
 Graduate and above 182 (11.8) 123 (14.5) 59 (8.4)  
Marital status- n (%)
 Single/divorce/widow 245 (15.8) 55 (6.5) 190 (27.1) <0.01
 Married 1301 (84.2) 791 (93.5) 510 (72.9)  
Biological variables (mean ± SD)
 BMI (kg/m2) 24.9 ± 5.3 23.9 ± 4.7 26.2 ± 5.6 <0.01
 WC (cm) 87.7 ± 12.5 89.4 ± 12.7 85.6 ± ± 11.8 0.17
 SBP (mmHg) 130.2 ± 19.5 131.1 ± 18.8 129.0 20.4 0.05
 DBP (mmHg) 83.1 ± 11.0 83.6 ± 11.1 82.5 ± 11.0 0.61
 Cholesterol (mg/dL) 185.0 ± 37.0 183.3 ± 36.2 187.2 ± 38.0 0.55
 LDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 2 113.8 ± 29.2 113.9 ± 28.9 113.8 ± 29.7 0.77
 Triglycerides (mg/dL) 147.3 ± 89.3 153.6 ± 92.5 139.8 ± 84.8 0.01
 HDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 3 40.3 ± 10.1 37.2 ± 8.4 44.2 ± 9.8 <0.01
 FBS (mg/dl) 101 ± 28.8 100.6 ± 28.8 103.28.7 0.51
Prevalence of CVD Risk Factors- n (%)
 Obese kg/m2 (BMI ≥25) 711 (46.0) 312 (36.9) 383 (54.8) <0.01
 Central Obesity (WC ≥90 cm in males or ≥80 cm in females) 883 (57.1) 407 (48.1) 476 (68.1) <0.01
 Elevated SBP (≥120 mmHg) 1054 (68.2) 610 (72.1) 444 (63.4) <0.01
 High Cholesterol (≥200 mg/dL) 500 (32.3) 261 (30.9) 239 (34.1) 0.09
 High LDL-C (≥100 mg/dL) 1079 (69.8) 588 (69.5) 491 (70.1) 0.82
 High TG (≥150 mg/dL) 555 (35.9) 318 (37.6) 237 (33.9) 0.13
 Low HDL(<40 mg/dL) 870 (56.3) 602 (71.2) 268 (38.3) <0.01
 Elevated FBS (≥100 mg/dL) 539 (34.9) 260 (30.7) 279 (39.9) <0.01
 Physical Activity (No) 289 (18.7) 109 (12.9) 180 (25.7) <0.01
 Tobacco use (Yes) 794 (51.4) 587 (69.4) 207 (29.6) <0.01
  1. BMI Body mass index, WC Waist circumference, SBP Systolic blood pressure, DBP Diastolic blood pressure, LDL Low density lipoprotein, HDL High density lipoprotein, FBS Fasting blood sugar, TG Triglycerides
  2. *For difference between genders, a two-sided t-test or chi-square test was used
  3. Values are expressed as mean ± standard deviation or frequencies and percentages